Ver. 1. Before him. Romulus instituted the 300 guards, whom he called Celeres, for the like purpose. C.
--- Absalom's ambition could not wait patiently for the death of his father, who was not yet sixty years old, and had been first anointed forty years before, v. 7. He looked upon himself as the heir apparent, Amnon being now slain, and Cheliab (or Daniel) either dead, as it is thought, or unfit for government, while Solomon was only eight years old. Salien.
--- The quality of his mother, and his own personal qualifications, made him despise his brethren, and he began to assume the equipage of a king. C.
--- David considered this as only the effect of juvenile vanity, and he had not a mind to irritate him, without the utmost necessity. Salien.
--- Heb. "Absalom prepared for himself a chariot, (Prot. chariots) and horses," &c. H.
--- It is not certain whether he had any other horsemen but those who mounted the chariots. Horses were then very scarce in Israel. C.
--- Adonias afterwards imitated his brother's ambition, during his father's life; (3 K. i. 5.) so that evil was continually raised up against David, out of his own house. C. xii. 11.
Ver. 2. Israel. Absalom rises early for wickedness. He assumes the character of a more zealous and disinterested judge, as if to contrast his conduct with the remissness of some appointed by the king; though the Holy Ghost bears witness to the integrity of David. C. viii. 15. Who would not be deceived by such appearances, if the arts of hypocrites had not taught us to examine things to the bottom, and to be upon our guard? If thy eye be evil, thy whole body will be darksome. The intention decides all. H.
Ver. 5. Kissed him. Engaging affability! How often abused by the ambitious, for similar purposes! H.
--- Thus acted Otho. Protendens manum, adorare vulgus, jacere oscula et omnia serviliter pro dominatione. Tacit. Hist. i.
--- "Stretching out his hand, he bowed to the common people, dispensing his kisses at random, and performed all the acts of servility to obtain the throne." H.
Ver. 6. Enticed. Heb. "stole." The people were not aware of his designs. C.
--- Absalom rendered them dissatisfied with the present government, and led them to expect better days, under his administration. H.
Ver. 7. Forty, which Vatable dates from the time when the people petitioned for a king; Salien, from the first anointing of David. M.
--- It is probable enough that this number has been substituted instead of four, which Josephus, Theodoret, Syr. Arab. and many Latin MSS. read; and Absalom would employ this term in securing the interest of Israel, before he declared himself openly their king. C.
--- He had been so long at Jerusalem, since his return. Salien.
--- The canon of Heb. verity, supposed to be made about the ninth century, is said (by Martinnay. H.) to be altered by some correcting hand, from four to forty. Kennicott.
--- This is the famous Memmian canon, which Theodulph, bishop of Orleans, is believed to have ordered, as the standard of truth, according to the Hebrew copies of that day: (H.) and this seems to have guided the Ben. editor of S. Jerom's works, and of his translation; so that it is no wonder if "the printed copies agree in so many places with the corrupted Heb." Canon Memmianus pure leget juxta Hebræum, quod nos edidimus. Note on 2 Par. xiii. 3. 17. The Vulgate of Sixtus V. in that passage, as well as in the present, reads the smaller numbers, as he was guided by the best Latin copies, whereas Clement VIII. has also consulted "the Heb. fountains." The former, says Kennicott, (Diss. ii. p. 205) "seems to have been printed on a juster plan...and the old Latin version is likely to be found more pure in the edition of Sixtus than in that of Clement, since the latter seems to have corrected his Latin by the modern (i.e. the corrupted) Heb. copies." Dr. James observes, that "almost all the Latin editions received in the Church, for many years, (preceding 1590) agree with Sixtus," who here reads quatuor, with many others; so that Grotius is well supported in having pronounced so decisively, "without doubt there is a mistake, two letters having been added at the end of arba. The thing itself declares that four years had elapsed." Kennicott.
--- It appears to be indubitable, that some mistakes have taken place with regard to numbers. But that this place is incorrect may not be so certain, as the chronology of Salien, Usher, &c. explains it well enough. The Hebrew text was esteemed more correct when the last editions of S. Jerom, and of the Vulg. were given, than it is at present. H.
Ver. 8. Lord. The pretext seemed very bad, since he ought not to have delayed so long to perform his vow. Moreover, the usual places for sacrifice were Gabaon or Sion. But Absalom might plead a respect for the patriarchs, who were buried at Hebron. S. Jer. Trad. M.
Ver. 10. Spies, or men to give a plausible appearance to his ambition, and to insinuate that all was done according to order, and with David's approbation. "The first word (or step) is the most difficult," on such occasions; (Tacit. Hist. ii. Grot.) and those who find themselves incautiously entangled, find a repugnance to recede. H.
--- Reigneth. He was solemnly anointed. C. xix. 10. M.
Ver. 11. Design. Their hearts had been stolen, v. 6. They only meant to do honour to the prince, but by no means to join in his rebellion, like the rest. C.
Ver. 12. Achitophel, the grandfather of Bethsabee; to revenge whose dishonour, he had instigated the young prince to revolt, and had planned his rebellion; (Salien) so that he was every ready to lend his assistance. C.
Ver. 13. Absalom. How came they to abandon a king, appointed by heaven, and adorned with so many virtues? God was resolved to punish him. Many are always desirous of novelty. David had lately been guilty of two scandalous crimes. Joab remained unpunished, and arrogant; the judges neglected their duty, &c. v. 3. Some had still a partiality for the family of Saul. C. Grotius.
Ver. 14. Ruin, of a house falling. Heb. "evil." David gives way to the fury of the rebels, hoping that they will enter into themselves, without bloodshed. He departs on foot, like a penitent, acknowledging the justice of God. Fear does not prompt him to leave Jerusalem, which was a place of such strength, (C. v. 6.) nor are his attendants abandoned on a sudden by that courage, which made some of them a match for a whole army. David disposes of all things with great coolness and prudence. C.
--- He wishes to appease God. M.
Ver. 16. Concubines. That is, wives of an inferior degree, (Ch. Gen. xxv. W.) who might perhaps have some influence to pacify the rioters.
Ver. 17. House, or palace, (H.) at the foot of the walls, (C.) that all who were well disposed, might join the king's standard. Heb. "in a place that was far off;" (H.) or, "this house of flight (this family of David, in flight) stopped." C.
Ver. 18. Phelethi, the king's foreign guards, of Philistine extraction. C. viii. 18.
--- Gethites, who had been probably induced to enter his service by Ethai, v. 19. C.
--- Men. This number David kept up, in honour of those valiant companions who had defended him at Odollam, &c. Salien.
--- It is observable, that David is attended only by his own family, and by strangers; representing Jesus Christ, who rejects the Synagogue and its sacrifices, while he makes choice of the Gentiles. C.
Ver. 19. Ethai. Many assert that he was the son of Achis, and had embraced the true religion. M.
--- King; Absalom, who will not molest you. H.
--- Some translate the Heb. "Return from the king." Syr. Arab.
Ver. 20. The Lord. Heb. "mercy and truth with thee." As thou hast acted towards me, so mayest thou be rewarded. H.
Ver. 23. Cedron. Heb. nachal Kidron, may signify, "the shady torrent," or "vale," as it is styled by Josephus. It does not take its name from cedars. It is dry in summer, and when filled with water, in only three steps across. Doubdan xxvii.
--- Desert, of Bethel, (C.) or of Jericho, where S. John Baptist and our Saviour dwelt for some time. David passed over Kedron, only after he had dismissed the priests. M.
CedronCedron. Heb. nachal Kidron, may signify, "the shady torrent," or "vale," as it is styled by Josephus. It does not take its name from cedars. It is dry in summer, and when filled with water, in only three steps across. Doubdan xxvii. --- Cedron, to the east and south of Jerusalem, where Topheth and the sepulchres of the poor, and all unclean things, were placed. Here the pagans burnt their children in honour of Moloch. See 3 K. xv. 13. 2 Par. xxix. 16. and xxx. 14.
Brook of Cedron[Hebrew Náhál Qidhrôn, "Wâdi Qidron"; only once "fields of Qidron"; John 18:1, ho cheimarros ho Kedron; in R.V., Kidron]. The name designates in Holy Writ the ravine on the east of Jerusalem, between the Holy City and the Mount of Olives. The word Cedron is usually connected with the root Qadár, "to be dark", and taken to refer to the colour of the stream or ravine; but its exact origin and precise meaning are really unknown. The Valley of Cedron begins with a slight depression near the Tombs of the Judges, a mile and a quarter north-west of Jerusalem. It runs first south towards the Holy city, and then turns nearly east, passing to the north of the tombs of the Kings. Next, it bends to the right towards the south, deepening as it follows this general direction between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives. Opposite St. Stephen's gate, it is fully 100 feet deep and about 400 feet broad; its bed is shaded by venerable olive-trees and crossed by an old bridge. Below the bridge, the valley presents the first traces of a torrent bed. It narrows gradually and sinks more rapidly leaving to the east the church of the tomb of the Blessed Virgin, and next, Gethsemani. A thousand feet from the old bridge, the valley is merely a deep gulley across which another bridge is thrown, and on the banks of which are, to the right, Mohammedan tombs, and to the left, the sepulchres of Josaphat, Absalom, St. James, and the Jewish cemetery. About a thousand feet farther, there is in a cave, on the right bank, the Fountain of the Virgin, and higher up, on the left, the village of Siloe. Somewhat farther down, the Tyropoeon valley falls from the right into the Cedron, which now expands down to the Valley of Hinnom. Here, the Cedron is about 200 yards wide, and has on its left the Mount of Offence. Shortly after the junction of the Valley of Hinom with the Cedron, there is Job's well, to the south of which Sir C. Warren found, in 1868-69, the shaft of a great rock-cut aqueduct. On leaving the Holy City, the Valley of the Cedron runs its winding and gradually precipitous course through the Wilderness of Judea to the north-western shore of the Dead Sea. The Cedron is perfectly dry during the summer and most of the winter. North of Jerusalem, it bears the name of Wâdi al-Jos (Valley of Nuts); between the city and the Mount of Olives, it is known as Wâdi Sitti Mariam (Valley of St. Mary), or again as the Valley of Josaphat (cf. Joel, iii, 2, 12); after leaving Jerusalem, it is called Wâdi en-Nâr (Valley of Fire), and also Wâdi er-Rahib (Valley of the Monks). Its whole length is some 20 miles in a straight line, and its descent nearly 4000 feet. Its bed east of Jerusalem is now about 40 feet higher than in ancient times. The Cedron is first mentioned in Holy Scripture in connection with David's flight from Absalom, during which he crossed it [2 Samuel 15:23]; and next, in connection with the prohibition to Semei against his ever crossing it [1 Kings 2:37]. It was at the torrent Cedron that King Asa burnt the filthy idol of his mother [1 Kings 15:13; 2 Chronicles 15:16]. It was into it that Ezechias and Josias cast all the impurities which had polluted the House of the Lord (cf. 2 Chronicles 29:16; 30:14; 2 Kings 23:4, 6, 12). The torrent Cedron is last mentioned in the O.T. in Jeremiah 31:40, apparently as part of the common cemetery of Jerusalem. In the New Testament it is spoken of only once, in connection with Christ's going forth over it to Gethsemani (John 18:1). In the present day it is the desired resting-place of both Jews and Mussulmans, and the supposed scene of Last Judgment.
Ver. 24. Went up to the ark, or along with the rest. C.
Ver. 25. City. Abiathar had consulted the Lord for David, and received no answer; whence the king concluded that he had not suffered enough. M.
--- David displays a faith which could hardly have been expected of the carnal Jews. He confesses that God will reward the virtuous, and punish the wicked, independently of the ark, the symbol of his presence, and of which he deemed himself unworthy. C.
Ver. 27. Seer, supposing he was high priest, along with Abiathar, he might be thus addressed as one who consulted God by the ephod, as he might also, if he presided over the prophets, like Chonenias. 1 Par. xv. 22. Dionysius. M.
--- Heb. "Art not thou a seer?" a prudent man, who may be of greater service to me in the city; (H. or) seest thou not "the state of my affairs?" Sept. "See and return." Follow my advice, or then act as your own wisdom dictates. C.
Ver. 30. Weeping, &c. David on this occasion wept for his sins, which he knew were the cause of all his sufferings. Ch.
--- Barefoot, like a criminal, or one in mourning. Isai. xx. 4. Ezec. xxiv. 17. C.
--- Covered, that the people might not see him. W.
Ver. 31. Infatuate: "render useless;" (Theodotion) "dissipate," Sept. C.
--- God hindered the wise counsel of Achitophel from being regarded. H.
Ver. 32. The Lord, before he lost sight of the holy city, where the ark was kept. C.
--- Arachite, a convert, (M.) from Arach, or Edessa. S. Jerom. Trad. in Gen. x.
Ver. 34. Defeat; (dissipabis) "render of no effect." H.
--- Thus princes keep spies in an enemy's country. C.