Ver. 1. Month; Tizri, the day after they had sent away those women, (C.) whose company now covered them with confusion. H.
--- They were moved to compunction, by the hearing of the law, read by Esdras. M.
Ver. 2. Stranger; idolatrous women. H.
--- True repentance requires the works of mortification, and particularly the removal of all occasions of sin and disorderly pleasures. W.
--- The reformation had been commenced under Esdras, but some had relapsed. 1 Esd. x. 3. C.
--- The true born Israelites would have no society with the sons of infidels. T.
--- Fathers, that they might not be punished for them. Ex. xx. 5. C.
Ver. 3. Stand, to hear the law, out of reverence; (M.) or the Levites ascended the pulpit to read, four times in the day. T.
--- After each lecture psalms were sung, (C.) to praise God, and to declare the sins of the people, and their sincere repentance. H.
--- On days of mourning, the Jews assembled four times to pray, and thrice on other days, by the institution of Esdras. Maimonides. See Acts iii. 1.
--- On their fasts, they refrained from all meat, as well as from work, spending their time in prayer. They began at the first hour, and continued their exercises of devotion till the third, when they recommenced for other three hours. They did the like at the sixth and ninth hours; hearing the law, then prostrating themselves to confess their sins. Afterwards they rose to join with the Levites in praising the Lord. C.
Ver. 4. Step, erected by Esdras. C. viii. 4.
--- Josue, &c. These Levites are mentioned again, (v. 5.) with some variation. Bani is called Bonni; Sebania, is Hasebnia. C.
--- Perhaps some of them might be different, as there seems to be no reason for thus changing their names so soon. There are eight persons in both places. Sept. have, "Jesus and the sons (Bani) of Kadmiel, Sachania, son of Sarabaia, the sons of Chanani, &c.; (5.) and the Levites, Jesus and Kadmiel said, Arise, &c. (6.) and Esdras said, Thou," &c. H.
Ver. 5. To eternity. Existing. Sa.
--- Bless him continually. M.
--- Let one generation after another praise his holy name. H.
Ver. 6. Of heavens. The highest, (C.) and most glorious (H.) residence of the Eternal.
--- Host. Stars (C.) and angels, (M.) which are like his guards.
--- Life, or being. If the Levites had adopted the sentiments of the Persians, that the stars were animated, this does not prove the truth of that opinion, which has nevertheless been maintained by many. Gen. i. 18. C.
--- The expression is used for preserving, (Ps. xl. 3. M.) re-establishing, &c. C. iv. 2. C.
Ver. 7. The fire of the Chaldees. The city of Ur, in Chaldea, the name of which signifies fire. Or out of the fire of tribulations and temptations, to which he was there exposed. The ancient Rabbins understood this literally, affirming that Abraham was cast into the fire by the idolaters, and brought out by a miracle without any hurt. Ch.
--- The Chaldees adored fire, (S. Jer. q. Heb. in Gen. xi. 31.) and the Persians probably imitated them. Strabo xv.
--- The emperor Heraclius destroyed their Pyreia. Suidas.
--- S. Jerom translates Ur of the Chaldees, in all other places. Amama.
--- Sept. "the country of," &c. C.
--- It is supposed that he sacred fire preserved in this city, gave name to it, (Ur, "fire,") as Heliopolis was so called, from the particular worship of "the sun." H.
--- Abraham, to imply some mystery. Gen. xvii. W.
--- See Isai. xliii. 27.
Ver. 10. A name, Glorious, (M.) and to be feared by all. Ex. xiv.
Ver. 14. Sabbath. Which it seems had not been observed by them before, (Ex. xvi. 23. C.) at least not with such exactitude. H.
Ver. 15. Hand. Promising with an oath, (Gen. xiv. 22. M. and xxii. 16. C.) or displaying thy power. H.
Ver. 17. Their head. Or appointed a leader instead of Moses, (Num. xiv. 4. M.) or an idol. Ex. xxxii. 1. Sept. "they gave a beginning, or a chief to return." Syr. "their heart returned to their crimes." C.
--- Prot. "and tin their rebellion appointed a captain to," &c. They turned their back upon the promised land, and set their faces to return into Egypt. H.
--- Sinners are not deprived of free-will. W.
Ver. 18. Blasphemies. By attributing the perfections of God to a senseless idol. Prot. follow the Sept. "provocations." Neatsoth (H.) properly implies words of an insulting nature. C.
Ver. 20. Spirit. The conducting angel. M.
--- God enlightened and moved the hearts of the people, by his grace; which he gave in abundance to Moses. C.
Ver. 21. Worn. So as to be sore, (H.) or without shoes. M. See Deut. viii. 4. C.
--- Prot. "their feet swelled not."
Ver. 22. Lots. Heb. "them (the Chanaanites, or as it is more commonly understood, the Israelites,) into corners." C.
--- Sept. "by lot they possessed," &c. H.
--- Sehon was king of Hesebon. Num. xxi. 26. C.
BasanBasan (Deut 3:4), a region S. of the Plain of Damascus; at first the Kingdom of Og, then given to the tribe of Manasses.
Ver. 24. Land. From which most of their fathers were excluded by death.
Ver. 25. Goodness. Prosperity was their ruin, (H.) as Moses had foretold. Deut. xxxii. 15. C.
--- "Empire is easily retained by the same arts by which it was procured: but when idleness takes the place of industry, when lust and pride banish continence and equity, fortune is changed with manners." Sallust, Grot.
Ver. 26. Earnestly. Lit. "called to witness" (H.) themselves, (Jos. xxiv. 21.) or heaven and earth. Deut. iv. 26. and xxx. 19. C.
--- Blasphemies. See v. 18. M.
Ver. 27. Saviours. Josue, (C.) and more particularly the judges, (M.) David, &c. C.
Ver. 28. Rest from their enemies. H.
--- The interval between their relapses was very short. C.
Ver. 29. Shoulder. Slipping from under the burden of the law. H.
--- It seems this and the following verses chiefly regard the ten tribes, which proudly rebelled against Juda, (C.) and against the Lord. H.
Ver. 30. Years, 254; during which time God had not ceased to recall his people to a sense of their duty, but all in vain.
Ver. 32. Labour. Receive it in satisfaction. C.
--- Heb. "let not all the trouble seem little before thee;" as if it were not enough to appease thy anger, when borne with proper dispositions and faith. H.
--- Assur. Theglathphalassar, who led some of the tribes into captivity, as Salmanasar did the rest. During this period, the whole nation was involved in misery, (C.) from which they had not been liberated even when the author wrote, v. 36. H. 1 Par. v. 26. M.
AssurOut of Sennaar, near the city of Babylon. Assur, or Ninus, who founded the Assyrian empire. M.
Ver. 33. Truth, fulfilled thy promises. We have broken the covenant.
Ver. 36. In it. Tributary to Persia. C. v. 4. and 1 Esd. vii. 24. and ix. 9. C.
Ver. 37. Tribulation. As we cannot enjoy the fruits, being so heavily taxed, and obliged to work in person for the king of a foreign country. C.
Ver. 38. Because. Or "considering all these things," as chastisements due to our transgressions, we are resolved now to reform our conduct, (H.) and to comply more exactly with the covenant, which we will now solemnly renew. A copy was probably deposited in the temple, signed by the princes, (C.) in the name of all. H.
--- Malachy (i. 4.) seems to allude to this covenant. C.