Gen Ex Lev Num Deut Josh Judg Ruth 1 Sam 2 Sam 1 Ki 2 Ki 1 Chron 2 Chron Ezra Neh Tob Jdt Esth Job Ps Prov Eccles Song Wis Sir Isa Jer Lam Bar Ezek Dan Hos Joel Amos Obad Jon Mic Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal 1 Mac 2 Mac
AND all Israel was numbered: and the sum of them was written in the book of the kings of Israel, and Juda: and they were carried away to Babylon for their transgression.

Ver. 1.  Israel.  These registers were preserved by those who fled from the arms of Salmanasar, into the kingdom of Juda.  Such records were preserved with the utmost care, and were collected by the author; who could give an account of what happened during and after the captivity, as he was an irreproachable eye-witness; not to mention the divine inspiration, which places his testimony out of the reach of criticism.  C.


--- And Juda; perhaps by some historian.  M.


--- Babylon, while Israel was removed elsewhere, by the Assyrians.  H.


--- The genealogies of Israel being hitherto recited, now those who came back from captivity appear.  W.

2 Now the first that dwelt in their possessions, and in their cities, were the Israelites, and the priests, and the Levites, and the Nathineans.

Ver. 2.  First.  He only treats of those who returned first, (T.) under Esdras.  H.


--- Nehemias brought back others, and more returned afterwards.  Many also retook possession of their lands, which they had enjoyed before the captivity.  1 Esd. iii. 12.


--- Nathineans.  These were the posterity of the Gabaonites, whose office was to bring wood, water, &c. for the service of the temple. Ch.  Jos. ix. 27.


--- David and Solomon consigned others of the Chanaanites, whose lives they spared, to perform the same office.  They were like public slaves.  The number of those who returned was so small, that days were appointed for all the people to help to carry wood for the temple.  At Jerusalem the Nathineans, "or people given," resided on the east side of the city; (2 Esd. ii. 26.) and other towns were assigned them.  1 Esd. ii. 70.  C.


--- The people continued to be divided into four classes, as they had been before the captivity.  Malvenda.

3 And in Jerusalem dwelt of the children of Juda, and of the children of Benjamin, and of the children of Ephraim, and of Manasses.

Ver. 3.  Manasses.  People from these tribes particularly, (H.) as well as from others, had fled to the kingdom of Juda, when the Assyrians took their brethren prisoners; and these returned to Jerusalem.  M.


--- Cyrus gave a general leave for all Israel to return.  The country was too spacious for them; and it was found necessary to force the tenth part of the people, by lot, to repair to Jerusalem, as it wanted inhabitants.  2 Esd. xi. 1.

4 Othei the son of Ammiud, the son of Amri, the son of Omrai, the son of Bonni, of the sons of Phares the son of Juda.

Ver. 4.  Othei; perhaps Hathaia, son of Husias.  The Heb. names are differently pronounced.  C.

5 And of Siloni: Asaia the firstborn, and his sons.

Ver. 5.  Siloni may mean a native of Silo, or a descendant of Sela.  See Num. xxvi. 20. and 2 Esd. xi. 5.  C.

6 And of the sons of Zara: Jehuel, and their brethren, six hundred and ninety. 7 And of the sons of Benjamin: Sale the son of Mosollam, the son of Oduia, the son of Asana:

Ver. 7.  Oduia, or Johed, or Juda.  2 Esd. xi. and vii. 9.  Junius.

8 And Jobania the son of Jeroham: and Ela the son of Ozi, the son of Mochori: and Mosallam the son of Saphatias, the son of Rahuel, the son of Jebania: 9 And their brethren by their families, nine hundred and fifty-six. All these were heads of their families, by the houses of their fathers. 10 And of the priests: Jedaia, Joiarib, and Jachin: 11 And Azarias the son of Helcias, the son of Mosollam, the son of Sadoc, the son of Maraioth, the son of Achitob, high priest of the house of God.

Ver. 11.  Azarias, or Saraias, ib. 11.


--- Mosollam, or Sellum.  C. vi. 12.  C.


--- High is not expressed in Pontifex; and this Azarias was only (H.) one of the principal families; (M.  D.) perhaps the second in dignity; (4 K. xxv. 18.) while Jesus was the successor of Aaron, 1 Esd. iii. 8.  C.


--- Heb. and Sept. "the ruler," (H.) or "captain of the guard of the house."  C.


--- They were styled pontiffs, or princes of the priests.  T.

12 And Adaias the son of Jeroham, the son of Phassur, the son of Melchias, and Maasai the son of Adiel, the son of Jezra, the son of Mosollam, the son of Mosollamith, the son of Emmer.

Ver. 12.  Phassur, Phesur, (H.) or Phetur.  From him sprung Zacharias, Amsi, Phelelia, Jehoram; so that the last was only the great-grandson of Phassur, 2 Esd. xi. 12.


--- Maasai.  In Esd. (v. 13) Amassai, the son of Azreel, the son of Ahazi.

13 And their brethren heads in their families re thousand seven hundred and threescore, very strong and able men for the work of the ministry in the house of God.

14 And of the Levites: Semeia the son of Hassub the son of Ezricam, the son of Hasebia of the sons of Merari.

Ver. 14.  Levites, established at Jerusalem.

15 And Bacbacar the carpenter, and Galal, and Mathania the son of Micha, the son of Zechri the son of Asaph:

Ver. 15.  Carpenter.  Heb. Cheresh, is taken by some to be a surname.  Sept. "And Ares."  It is asserted that the priests and Levites could follow no mechanical profession, (Abul.) and the Bacbacar only presided over the carpenters, who wrought in the temple.  M.  T.


--- But why might not people of this order employ themselves in such arts and labours, which were never deemed degrading among the Hebrews, nor incompatible with the sacred ministry, during the leisure hours?  C.


--- S. Paul did not disdain to make tents.  H.

16 And Obdia the son of Semeia, the son of Galal, the son of Idithum: and Barachia the son of Asa, the son of Elcana, who dwelt in the suburbs of Netophati.

Ver. 16.  Suburbs, or "courts," atriis.  H.


--- Heb. "villages."  M.


--- Netophati was a town of Juda.  The ancient regulations could not be observed exactly.  C.


--- The priests received the Levites into their cities.  D.

17 And the porters were Sellum, and Accub, and Telmon, and Ahiman: and their brother Sellum was the prince,

Ver. 17.  Sellum had the superintendency over all the porters.  H.


--- He was also at the head of one of the four bands which guarded the doors, east, west, north, and south of the temple, with various apartments, v. 26.  C.


--- Brother.  Heb. "brethren," or bands.  H.

18 Until that time, in the king's gate eastward, the sons of Levi waited by their turns.

Ver. 18.  Time.  Heb. "and hitherto."  This custom has been observed at the king's gate, who entered his tribune by the eastern gate of the temple.  4 K. xvi. 18.  So far the ancient records reach.  Some would infer from this passage, that a guard was still kept at the king's gate, even though there was none sitting upon the throne after the captivity.  C.


--- Prot. ("who hitherto waited in the king's gate eastward.)  They were porters in the companies of the children of Levi."  H.


--- These different bands attended by turns.  M.


--- But the captains were on duty every day, v. 25, and 26, and 34.

19 But Sellum the son of Core, the son of Abiasaph, the son of Core, with his brethren and his father's house, the Corites were over the works of the service, keepers of the gates of the tabernacle: and their families in turns were keepers of the entrance of the camp of the Lord.

Ver. 19.  Service, to keep watch.  C.


--- Families.  Heb. "fathers over the host, (H.) or camp of the Lord: keepers of the entry."  The Corites, though not perhaps alone, performed what their fathers had done before the tabernacle, in the desert, and in the temple of Solomon; which were considered as the camp of the great king.

20 And Phinees the son of Eleazar, was their prince before the Lord,

Ver. 20.  Before.  Heb. "the Lord with him," an usual form of blessing, (C.) or of wishing well (H.) to the deceased.  C.


--- This Phinees lived after the captivity, (M.) and possessed the same power as Eleazar and Joiada.  C. xii. 27.  Num. iii. 32.  It is not necessary to refute the fables of the Rabbins, who pretend that the famous Phinees was an angel, who appeared at different times, and particularly at the return from Babylon.  C.


--- Heb. may refer to the ancient Phinees: "And Phinees...was ruler over them formerly, and the Lord was with him."  D.

21 And Zacharias the son of Mosollamia, was porter of the gate of the tabernacle of the testimony:

Ver. 21.  Gate, leading to the holy place, which corresponded with the tabernacle.

22 All these that were chosen to be porters at the gates, were two hundred and twelve: and they mere registered in their proper towns: whom David and Samuel the seer appointed in their trust.

Ver. 22.  Towns, where they resided, when they were not on duty.  M.


--- Seer, or prophet.  H.


--- We read not of his making any such regulation.  But he probably made it after the misconduct of the sons of Heli, and when the ark was brought back.  C.


--- He might also give private instructions to David for the same purpose; (H.) as Gad and Nathan did.  2 Par. xxix. 25.  The same plans were still adopted, though the number of Levites was small.  C.


--- Trust, while they were at the head of affairs, and acting by God's authority.  Lit. "in their faith;" (H.) enlightened from above, and regulating matters according to the dispositions, which they discovered in the sacred ministers: or rather Heb. "in their established employment," which was to subsist in future ages.  C.

23 As well them as their sons, to keep the gates of the house of the Lord, and the tabernacle by their turns. 24 In four quarters were the porters: that is to say, toward the east, and west, and north, and south.

Ver. 24.  Quarters: lit. "by the four winds."

25 And their brethren dwelt in villages, and came upon their sabbath days from time to time.

Ver. 25.  Up on.  Heb. "after seven days...with them," to take their place for a week.

26 To these four Levites were committed the whole number of the porters, and they were over the chambers, and treasures, of the house of the Lord.

Ver. 26.  To these.  Heb. "for these Levites, (Sellum, &c.  v. 17) four chief porters were in their set office," for life, or as long as they were able to serve, and did not change every week like the rest.


--- Lord: the apartments of the priests, and the storehouses, (H.) where all precious ornaments, wine, &c. were kept.  C.

27 And they abode in their watches round about the temple of the Lord: that when it was time, they might open the gates in the morning. 28 And some of their stock had the charge of the vessels for the ministry: for the vessels were both brought in and carried out by number. 29 Some of them also had the instruments of the sanctuary committed unto them, and the charge of the fine flour, and wine, and oil, and frankincense, and spices.

30 And the sons of the priests made the ointments of the spices.

Ver. 30.  Priests.  They alone were allowed to make the composition, which no mortal was permitted to use (C.) for his own pleasure.  H.  Ex. xxx. 34.

31 And Mathathias a Levite, the firstborn of Sellum the Corite, was overseer of such things as were fried in the fryingpan.

Ver. 31.  Pan, to be offered on the altar of holocausts, (Lev. ii. 4. and vii. 12.) or to be eaten by the priests.  Ezec. xlvi. 20.  Mathathias was to take care that all this was done with decency, (C.) and to look after the utensils.

32 And some of the sons of Caath their brethren, were over the leaves of proposition, to prepare always new for every sabbath.

Ver. 32.  Propositions.  Heb. "of arrangement;" (Ex. xxxv. 13.) "of faces."  These loaves were made by the Levites, but arranged upon the golden table every week (C.) before the ark.  See C. xxiii. 92.

33 These are the chief of the singing men of the families of the Levites, who dwelt in the chambers, by the temple, that they might serve continually day and night in their ministry.

Ver. 33.  These; probably Sellum, &c. (v. 17) though it is not certain that the chief porters presided over the singers.  C. xv. and xvi.  Heb. "And these are the singers, chief of the families (C.  or fathers) of the Levites, in the chambers (of the temple) free" from all other avocations, (H.) that they may watch over the porters and musicians.  Sept. is clearer: (C.) "And these are the masters of music over the bands of Levites, observing their daily courses, because they are day and night over them in the works."  H.


--- The sons of Caath seem to be chiefly specified, (v. 32) though other families sung.  C. vi. 39.


--- Chambers, at a distance from their wives, to trim the lamps in the evening, and to see that none were extinguished, (M.) as also to teach music, &c.  The Synagogues were used afterwards.  D.

34 The heads of the Levites, princes in their families, abode in Jerusalem.

Ver. 34.  Jerusalem, having no substitute; (C. xxvi.  H.) or the chiefs of each family resided there.  M.

35 And in Gabaon dwelt Jehiel the father of Gabaon, and the name of hill wife was Maacha:

Ver. 35.  And in.  These verses are repeated from the last chapter, in order to bring us to the death of Saul, (M.) and the reign of David.  C.


--- "Tis difficult to account for the repetition, provided they were repeated originally; but if they have been repeated through the blunder of a transcriber, the existence of the same words" before them may be the reason.  Kennicott.


--- The father of Gabaon.  This is the explanation of Abigabaon.  C. viii. 29.  H.


--- Wife.  So the former chapter, and all the ancient versions, with some Heb. MSS. read, instead of the printed Heb. "sister," (Ken.) which seems to be corrupted; (C.) and the Prot. venture to correct it.  H.


36 His firstborn son Abdon, and Sur, and Cis, and Baal, and Ner, and Nadab,


(Josh 21:30, etc.): Khirbet Abdeh, N. of the Wâdy el-Karn.


Baal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.

37 Gedor also, and Ahio, and Zacharias, and Macelloth.

38 And Macelloth beget Samaan: these dwelt over against their brethren in Jerusalem, with their brethren.

39 Now Ner beget Cis: and Cis begot Saul: and Saul beget Jonathan and Melchisua, and Abinadab, and Esbaal.


40 And the son of Jonathan, was Meribbaal: and Meribbaal beget Micha. 41 And the sons of Micha, were Phithon, and Melech, and Tharaa, and Ahaz.

Ver. 41.  Tharaa.  Heb. "Tachrea."  Ken. e, is substituted for a.  H.


--- And Ahaz, is omitted in Hebrew, (Ken.) and Sept..

42 And Ahaz beget Jara, and Jara beget Alamath, and Azmoth, and Zamri. And Zamri beget Mesa.

Ver. 42.  Jara.  Heb. Yahra instead of Jeuade, or Johada, (C.) viii. 36, twice.  Sept. Jada here, and Joiada above.  H.

43 And Mesa beget Banaa: whose son Raphaia beget Elasa: of whom was born Asel.

Ver. 43.  Raphaia, called Rapha before.  C.

44 And heel had six sons whose names are, Ezricam, Bochru, Ismahel, Saria, Obdia, Hanan: these are the sons of Asel.

Ver. 44.  These.  All is omitted, though it is found C. viii. 38, and in MS. ii.  Kennicott.


--- These remarks, which may appear to some  minute, shew that all Hebrew MSS. are not absolutely alike, as some once pretended; and that the Hebrew Bible is not printed from the best copies.  H.


--- "The sacred volume in Hebrew has, therefore, been published with such carelessness, as no other printed copy with which I am acquainted."  Houbigant, prol. p. 2.


--- Yet this is the copy, which alone Protestants hold up as the standard of perfection, and the Rule of Faith!  H.

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