Gen Ex Lev Num Deut Josh Judg Ruth 1 Sam 2 Sam 1 Ki 2 Ki 1 Chron 2 Chron Ezra Neh Tob Jdt Esth Job Ps Prov Eccles Song Wis Sir Isa Jer Lam Bar Ezek Dan Hos Joel Amos Obad Jon Mic Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal 1 Mac 2 Mac
THE sons of Levi were Gerson, Caath, and Merari.

Ver. 1.  Levi.  The genealogy of the Levites is given with more exactitude than any of the preceding.  Caath formed two branches, 1. the priests, descended from Aaron; 2. all his other children, who were simply Levites.  C.


--- Hence they are placed after the priests.  M.


2 The sons of Caath: Amram, Isaar, Hebron, and Oziel.

Ver. 2.  Isaar, or Aminadab, v. 22.


3 The children of Amram: Aaron, Moses, and Mary. The sons of Aaron: Nadab and Abiu, Eleazar and Ithamar.

Ver. 3.  Abiu.  These died without children.  The genealogy of Eleazar is given, as his family enjoyed the pontificate a long time, while that of Ithamar is neglected, (C.) as only Heli and a few others were raised to that dignity.  H.


4 Eleazar beget Phinees, and Phinees beget Abisue,

Ver. 4.  Eleazar.  The nine following generations to Sadoc may be immediate.  D.

5 And Abisue beget Bocci, and Bocci begot Ozi.

Ver. 5.  Abisue.  He is mentioned no where else.  Josephus (v. ult.) calls him Abiezer.  C.


--- Many of these high priests were very obscure.  M.


--- Ozi, after whom Heli is supposed to have reigned, so that Zaraias and the three following were excluded, (C.) while Heli, and four of the same family of Ithamar, were acknowledged as high priests.  T.


--- Abiathar was then forced to give place to Sadoc, (3 K. ii. 26.  H.) whose family was in power at the captivity, v. 15.  T.


--- Nicephorus (ii. 4.) and Josephus (x. 11.) mention other high priests besides these.  W.

6 Ozi beget Zaraias, and Zaraias beget Maraioth. 7 And Maraioth beget Amarias, and Amarias beget Achitob. 8 Achitob beget Sadoc, and Sadoc begot Achimaas. 9 Achimaas beget Azarias, Azarias begot Johanan,

Ver. 9.  Azarias.  Perhaps the same who is called Amarias, (2 Par. xix. 11.) as Johanan is probably the illustrious Joiada, 4 K. xi. 4.

10 Johanan beget Azarias. This is he that executed the priestly office in the house which Solomon built in Jerusalem.

Ver. 10.  This may refer to either.  C.


--- The Holy Ghost gives an encomium to Joiada, for re-establishing the divine worship, (Junius) or to Azarias, for withstanding the impious attempt of king Osias.  E.  T. &c.  2 Paral. xxvi. 17.  M.

11 And Azarias beget Amarias, and Amarias beget Achitob. 12 And Achitob beget Sadoc, and Sadoc beget Sellum,

Ver. 12.  Sellum, or Mosollam.  C. ix. 11.  C.

13 Sellum beget Helcias, and Helcias beget Azarias, 14 Azarias beget Saraias, and Saraias beget Josedec. 15 Now Josedec went out, when the Lord carried away Juda, and Jerusalem, by the hands of Nabuchodonosor.

Ver. 15.  Went out, into captivity, while his father was slain.  4 K. xxv. 18.  More than 22 priests would be requisite to fill up near 900 years.  See Salien.

16 So the sons of Levi were Gerson, Caath, and Merari.

Ver. 16.  Gerson.  Hebrew here reads Gersom, though it had Gerson before, v. 1.


17 And these are the names of the sons of Gerson: Lobni and Semei. 18 The sons of Caath: Amram, and Isaar, and Hebron, and Oziel.

Ver. 18.  The, &c.  This verse is repeated from v. 2. as the author is now going to continue the genealogy of the Levites, in their natural order, (H.) to Samuel.  D.

19 The sons of Merari: Moholi and Musi. And these are the kindreds of Levi according to their families. 20 Of Gerson: Lobni his son, Jahath his son, Zamma his son,

Ver. 20.  Jahath.  See v. 42, 3.


--- Zamma springs from Semei, Jeth, Gerson, and has a son named Ethan, who has Adaia; as Zara begot Athanai, v. 41.  Almost all the names are rather different

21 Joah his son, Addo his son, Zara his son, Jethrai his son. 22 The sons of Caath, Aminadab his son, Core his son, Asir his son,

Ver. 22.  Asir.  While Core perished, his children were preserved.  Num. xvi. 30. and xxvi. 11.  H.

23 Elcana his son, Abiasaph his son, Asir his son,

Ver. 23.  Asir.  This name seems superfluous (v. 36.  Ex. vi. 24.  C.) perhaps taken from the preceding verse.  H.


--- The two former were sons of Core, v. 25. 37.  C.

24 Thahath his son, Uriel his son, Ozias his son, Saul his son.

25 The sons of Elcana: Amasai, and Achimoth. 26 And Elcana. The sons of Elcana: Sophai his son, Nahath his son,

Ver. 26.  Sophai, Nahath, and Eliab, are called Suph, (H.) Thohu, (v. 34.  C.) and Eliel.  H.


--- Sophai may be a surname of Elcana.  Poole.  D.

27 Eliab his son, Jeroham his son, Elcana his son.

Ver. 27.  Elcana, his son.  It seems necessary to supply, "Samuel, his son," (H.) as he descended from the 3d Elcana.  D.

28 The sons of Samuel: the firstborn Vasseni, and Abia.

Ver. 28.  Vasseni.  Some Latin copies subjoin "Joel," who was the first-born, (v. 33.)  La Haye.


--- Vasseni means, "and the second;" which can hardly be considered as the name of the eldest son, tough some have take it as such, in like manner as they have explained six.  C. iii. 22.  But then the v ought at least to be omitted, (C.) as it is in the Vat. and Alex. Sept. "Sani and Abia."  H.


--- Other editions insert "Joel," with the Syr. and Arab.  C.


--- This person had therefore either two names, or Joel has been omitted, and we should translate "Joel and the second, Abia."  M.


--- These brothers acted so ill as judges, that the people took occasion to demand a king.  1 K. viii. 3.

29 And the sons of Merari, Moholi: Lobni his son, Semei his son, Oza his son,

30 Sammaa his son, Haggia his son, Asaia his son. 31 These are they, whom David set over the singing men of the house of the Lord, after that the ark was placed:

Ver. 31.  The singing.  Heb. "the hands or places of the canticle," the two tribunes on each side of the altar.  Heman presided over the band in the middle, while Asaph directed those on the right, and Ethan those on the left, v. 33. 39. and 44.  C.


--- Placed.  Heb. "rested," as before David's time it had been carried about.  He erected a tabernacle for it on Sion, and directed the Levites to attend in order, (C. xxv.) so that some should be present every day (M.) to honour God, both by instruments and vocal music, while the priests performed their sacred functions with the utmost decency.


32 And they ministered before the tabernacle of the testimony, with singing, until Solomon built the house of the Lord in Jerusalem, and they stood according to their order in the ministry.

33 And these are they that stood with their sons, of the sons of Caath, Hemam a singer, the son of Joel, the son of Sammuel,

Ver. 33.  Heman.  Some families among the Levites were more distinguished than the rest, having authority to regulate the singers, and to give the tune.  Hence many psalms are addressed to these three masters of music.  Yet from those titles we cannot surely infer that those psalms were composed by Asaph, &c.  C.

34 The son of Elcana, the son of Jeroham, the son of Eliel, the son of Thohu,

Ver. 34.  Eliel.  Many of the genealogies do not seem to agree in these first 10 chapters, as some more obscure names have been passed over, (M.) or the people had different names, or, through the fault of transcribers, some alteration has taken place, which could hardly be avoided, without a constant miracle.  H.

35 The son of Suph, the son of Elcana, the son of Mahath, the son of Amasai,

36 The son of Elcana, the son of Johel, the son of Azarias, the son of Sophonias,
37 The son of Thahath, the son of Asir, the son or Abiasaph, the son of Core,

38 The son of Isaar, the son of Caath, the son of Levi, the son of Israel. 39 And his brother Asaph, who stood on his right hand, Asaph the son of Barachias, the son of Samaa.

Ver. 39.  Brother, or relation, though of the family of Gerson.  He also followed the same profession as Ethan did, v. 44.

40 The son of Michael, the son of Basaia, the son of Melchia. 41 The son of Athanai, the son of Zara, the son of Adaia. 42 The son of Ethan, the son of Zamma, the son of Semei. 43 The son of Jeth, the son of Gerson, the son of Levi. 44 And the sons of Merari their brethren, on the left hand, Ethan the son of Cusi, the son of Abdi, the son of Meloch,

Ver. 44.  Ethan is also called Idithun (C. xxv. 1. 8.) in the Psalms.  C.

45 The son of Hasabia, the son of Amasai, the son of Helcias, 46 The son of Amasai, the son of Boni, the son of Somer, 47 The son of Moholi, the son of Mud, the son of Merari, the son of Levi. 48 Their brethren also the Levites, who were appointed for all the ministry of the tabernacle of the house of the Lord.

Ver. 48.  Brethren.  All the other Levites, who were not Cantors.  M.

49 But Aaron and his sons offered burnt offerings upon the altar of holocausts, and upon the altar of incense, for very work of the holy of holies: and to pray for Israel according to all that Moses the servant of God had commanded.

Ver. 49.  Offerings, which is here the meaning of incensum; as "incense" was not burnt on this altar, but only victims.  Ex. xxix. 13.

50 And these are the sons of Aaron: Eleazar his son, Phinees his son, Abisue his son, 51 Bocci his son, Ozi his son, Zarahia his son, 52 Meraioth his son, Amarias his son, Achitob his son, 53 Sadoc his son, Achimaas his son.

Ver. 53.  Sadoc.  By God's ordinance Heli had been appointed.  But the dignity still subsisted in Aaron's family.  W.


--- Achimaas, who was pontiff in the days of Solomon.  This genealogy had been brought down to the Captivity, (v. 3, &c.) which shews that the author give extracts from different records.

54 And these are their dwelling places by the towns and confines, to wit, of the sons of Aaron, of the families of the Caathites: for they fell to them by lot. 55 And they gave them Hebron in the land of Juda, and the suburbs thereof round about:

Ver. 55.  Suburbs, or 2000 cubits round the city.  See Jos. xx. and xxi.  C.

56 But the fields of the city, and the villages to Caleb son of Jephone.


57 And to the sons of Aaron they gave the cities for refuge Hebron, and Lobna, and the suburbs thereof,

Ver. 57.  Of, is not authorized by the Vulg. civitates, but is added, to signify that all these 13 cities were not thus privileged.  H.


--- There were only six cites of refuge, of which Hebron was one.  See Josue xx. 7.  C.  M.


--- Prot. "And to the sons of Aaron they gave the cities of Juda, namely, Hebron, the city of refuge."  But "such a licence to insert words at pleasure, cannot be allowed."  Heb. lit. "they gave cities of Hebrew refuge, Hebron," &c.  The "sense absolutely disallows the word Judah," which is omitted , (Jos. xxi. 13.) as well as in some Heb. MSS. in the Bamberg, and Complut. editions, and in those of Jablonski and Michaelis.


--- Hari, "cities," ought to be hir, "a city," as only one is meant.  We should also add with the Arab. and Syriac, and the parallel passage in Josue, "and her suburbs," after Hebron.  Kennicott.


--- "Juda" is not found in the Sept. &c.: and Buxtorf acted with little wisdom, when he thought he had sufficiently answered Capellus, by observing that the Masora declared the word to be authentic.  Anticrit.  It is a great misfortune that most of the printed Heb. editions have been given under such influence; and that the Masorets have defaced so many MSS. by their corrections.  H.


--- Hence they probably burnt all the first edition of Naples, 1487, except part of a single copy, comprising the Cethubim given to Eton college by Dr. Pellet, which omits the word Juda.  Kennicott. Dis. i. p. 520-2.

58 And Jether and Esthemo, with their suburbs, and Helon, and Dabir with their suburbs:


Dabir, 1 (Josh 11:22, etc.; S. Juda) the same as Cariathsenna and Cariathsepher: most prob. Darherîyeh, S.S.W. of Hebron. — 2 (Josh 15:7; N. Juda): poss. Toghret ed-Debr. --- Dabir, which was formerly called Cariath sepher, "the city of the book," (C. xv. 15,) or of Senna, (ib. 45,) near Hebron.

59 Asan also, and Bethsames, with their suburbs.

Ver. 59.  Asan, perhaps Jethnan, or Ain.  Jos. xv. 23. and xxi. 15.  Syriac adds Ethra.  C.


--- Bethsames.  Sept. Alex. subjoins, "Baither and its suburbs."  H.


--- All these cities were in the tribes of Juda and of Simeon.  M.


Bethsames, 1 (Josh 15:10, etc.; Dan); also Bethsemes (1Chron 6:59): 'Ain-Shems, 15 m. W. of Jerusalem. — 2 (Josh 19:22; Issachar), possibly 'Ain esh-Shemsiyeh, S. of Beisân; or Kh. Shemsin, S. of the Lake of Tiberias. — 3 (Josh 19:38; Nephtali), perhaps Kh. Shem'â (?), W. of Sãfed. --- Bethsames was in the tribe of Dan, (C.) but belonging to the king of Juda. --- Bethsames, "the house of the sun". Here the sight of the ark proved so fatal to 50,070 of the inhabitants, 1 K. vi. 19. C.


Asan (Josh 15:42, etc.; Juda): poss. 'Aseileh between Bersabee and Hebron. --- Asan, perhaps Jethnan, or Ain. Jos. xv. 23. and xxi. 15. Syriac adds Ethra. C.

60 And out of the tribe of Benjamin: Gabee and its suburbs, Almath with its suburbs, Anathoth also with its suburbs: all their cities throughout their families were thirteen.

Ver. 60.  Almath.  Jos. Almon.


--- Thirteen; but Geta and Gabaon are not here expressed.  Jos. xxi. 16. 17.  C.


--- Sept. Alex. inserts, "Lebee," before, and "Anchos, with its suburbs," after Anathoth, thus making 14; but these additional cities are not sacerdotal.  H.


Almath (1Chron 6:60) also Almon (Josh 21:18), in Benjamin: Kh. 'Almith, N.E. of Jerusalem, between Jebâ and Anâtâ.


Anathoth was a sacerdotal town in Benjamin. M. --- Anathoth, a village to the north of Jerusalem, to which many priests had retired, though it did not belong to them. C.

61 And to the sons of Caath that remained of their kindred they gave out of the half tribe of Manasses ten cities in possession.

Ver. 61.  Out of.  We may supply, "the tribe of Dan, Ephraim, &c." as only two cities belonged to Manasses.  Jos. xxi. 25.  C.


--- Double that number was taken from the two other tribes.  M.

62 And to the sons of Gerson by their families out of the tribe of Issachar, and out of the tribe of Aser, and out of the tribe of Nephtali, and out of the tribe of Manasses in Basan, thirteen cities. their


Basan (Deut 3:4), a region S. of the Plain of Damascus; at first the Kingdom of Og, then given to the tribe of Manasses.

63 And to the sons of Merari by families out of the tribe of Ruben, and out of the tribe of Gad, and out of the tribe of Zabulon, they gave by lot twelve cities. 64 And the children of Israel gave to the Levites the cities, and their suburbs. 65 And they gave them by lot, out of the tribe of the sons of Juda, and out of the tribe of the sons of Simeon, and out of the tribe of the sons of Benjamin, these cities which they called by their names.

Ver. 65.  Them.  The priests, v. 54.  D.


--- Names.  Some being styled of the priests, (C.) other of the Levites, (M.) whose dominion as thus asserted.  C.

66 And to them that were of the kindred of the sons of Caath, and the cities in their borders were of the tribe of Ephraim.

Ver. 66.  The cities, or rather "some cities," as all were not in the tribe of Ephraim.  H.


67 And they gave the cities of refuge Sichem with its suburbs in mount Ephraim, and Gazer with its suburbs,

Ver. 67.  Of the.  Lit. "cities to flee to, (or of refuge) Sichem," (H.) which might induce some to suppose that all these cities were of this description; but, in reality, only Sichem had that privilege.  C.


--- Sept. is liable to the same ambiguity.  See v. 57. (H.) Jos. xx. 7. and xxi. 21.

68 Jecmaan also with its suburbs, and Beth-horon in like manner,

Ver. 68.  Jecmaan, or Cibsaim, (Jos.) as Helon is put for Aialon below.  And of the tribe of Dan, Eltheco and Gabathon is omitted.  See Jos. xxi. 23.


Bethoron. There were two cities of this name in the tribe of Ephraim, rebuilt by Sara. 1 Par. vii. 24. The lower was twelve miles from Jerusalem

69 Helon also with its suburbs, and Gethremmon in like manner,

70 And out of the half tribe of Manasses, Aner and its suburbs, Baalam and its suburbs: to wit, to them that were left of the family of the sons of Caath.

Ver. 70.  Aner and Baalam, perhaps the same as Thanach and Gethremmon, which were given to the children of Caath of the inferior degree, (Jos. xxi. 26.  C.) or, who were left out of the rank of priests, (M.) or before unprovided for, as the partition was made at different times.


--- Baalam.  Heb. "Balaam."  Sept. "Iblaam" is the Jeblaam.  Jos. xvii. 11.


Baalam (1Chron 6:70; Heb. 55; W. Manasses), also Balaam; possibly Jeblaam (Josh 17:11): Bir Bel'ameh, S. of Jenîn. --- Baalam. Heb. "Balaam." Sept. "Iblaam" is the Jeblaam. Jos. xvii. 11.


Aner (1Chron 6:70; Heb. 55; W. Manasses), perhaps a corruption for Thanach of Josh 21:25; poss. also 'Ellar, N.W. of Sebastiyeh.

71 And to the sons of Gersom, out of the kindred of the half tribe of Manasses, Gaulon, in Basan, and its suburbs, and Astharoth with its suburbs.

Ver. 71.  Astharoth, or Bosra.  C.


--- Heb. Hashtaroth.  Jos. xxi. 27.  H.


Basan (Deut 3:4), a region S. of the Plain of Damascus; at first the Kingdom of Og, then given to the tribe of Manasses.

72 Out of the tribe of Issachar, Cedes and its suburbs, and Dabereth with its suburbs;

Ver. 72.  Cedes...Ramoth, and Anem, are Cesion, Jaramoth, and Engannim.  Jos. xxi. 28. 29.


Dabereth (Josh 19:21, etc.; Zabulon), Deburîyeh, W., and at the foot of Mt.Thabor.

73 Ramoth also and its suburbs, and Anem with its suburbs.


Anem (1Chron 6:73, Hebrews 58; Issachar), perhaps a contraction for Engannim, which stands in the same place, Josh 19:21. However, poss. 'Anîm, S. of Lejûn.

74 And out of the tribe of Aser: Masal with its suburbs, and Abdon in like manner;


(Josh 21:30, etc.): Khirbet Abdeh, N. of the Wâdy el-Karn.

75 Hucac also and its suburbs, and Rohol with its suburbs.

Ver. 75.  Hucac...Hamon, and Cariathaim, are Helcath, Hammoth-Dor, and Carthan.

76 And out of the tribe of Nephtali, Cedes in Galilee and its suburbs, Hamon with its suburbs, and Cariathaim, and its suburbs.


Cariathaim. This city, and most of the others, were repossessed by Moab after the Israelites were led into captivity. C.

77 And to the sons of Merari that remained: out of the tribe of Zabulon, Remmono and its suburbs, and Thabor with its suburbs.

Ver. 77.  Remmono and Thabor, or, Jecham and Cartha.  H.


--- Damna and Naalol are here omitted.  Jos. xxi. 35.  There was formerly a town on Thabor, perhaps called Ceselet Thabor.  Jos. xix. 12.  Judg. iv. 6.  C.

78 Beyond the Jordan also over against Jericho, on the east side of the Jordan, out of the tribe of Ruben, Bosor in the wilderness with its suburbs, and Jassa with its suburbs;


Bosor, 1 (Deut 4:43, etc.; Moab. S., l. 27), prob. Qesûr el-Besheir, S.W. of Dibân. — 2 (1Mac 5:26, 36), very likely Busr el-Harîrî, in the Ledjah. — 3 (1Mac 5:28): Bosra in Hauran. See BOSTRA. --- Bosor means a fortress. It is not wonderful that there should be many places of this name in Arabia, to defend the people from robbers. --- It is sometimes called Besor, and is very different from Bozra of Idumea, (Isai. lxiii. 1,) a very famous city, known to profane authors by the name of Bostra.

79 Cademoth also and its suburbs, and Mephaath with its suburbs;


Cademoth (Deut 2:26, etc.), also Cedimoth. Seems to have been N. of the Arnon; poss. Umm Ressâs. --- Cademoth, "to the east," of the Arnon. There was a city of the same name on the other side of the banks, which belonged to Sehon, and was given afterwards to the Levites, 1 Par. vi. 79. C.

80 Moreover also out of the tribe of Gad, Ramoth in Galaad and its suburbs, and Manaim with its suburbs;

81 Hesebon also with its suburbs, and Jazer with its suburbs.

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