Ver. 1. Charmi, the great-grandson of Juda, by Zara and Zamri. Jos. vii. 1.
--- Junius takes him to be the same with Calubi, (C. ii.) father of Sobal. This seems to be transcribed from another ancient register of the family of Juda, and designed to shew where the principal men had resided. C.
--- Only the chiefs are specified. D.
Ver. 2. Sarathi, who peopled Saraa. C.
Ver. 3. Posterity. So all the ancient versions seem to have read boni, instead of the present Heb. abi, which literally means, "and these are the father of Etam." If words ever wanted sense, they do so here. Kennicott.
--- Etham is perhaps the name of a town. Malv.
BethlehemBethlehem of Juda, where Booz also was born. C. --- That place was, moreover, to be honoured with the birth of the Messias. S. Aug. q. 165. --- Ephrata: another name of Bethlehem. Ch.
AssurOut of Sennaar, near the city of Babylon. Assur, or Ninus, who founded the Assyrian empire. M.
Ver. 7. Ethnan. Some would insert "and Cos," to connect this with the following.
Ver. 8. Cos. Perhaps (C.) the same with Cenez, v. 13. T.
Ver. 9. Jabes. That is, sorrowful. Ch.
--- There seems to be something wanting, as we are not informed who were the brethren of Jabes. C.
--- This name he received from his mother, while his father Cos, called him Othoniel. E.
Ver. 10. For. To reward his piety and vow. Othoniel obtained Cariath-sepher, and Axa, the daugher of Caleb. Jos. xv. 17. C.
--- Jabes imitated holy Jacob, (Gen. xxviii.) and both desired temporal blessings, for their advancement in virtue. W.
Ver. 11. Caleb. Heb. "Celub," different bother from Calubi and the son of Jephone, v. 15. C.
--- Brother, &c. Sept. "father of Ascha," which would seem to make him the same with the latter.
Ver. 12. City. Heb. "Hir-Nachash." H.
--- The latter term denotes "copper of a serpent." We know not where this city was situated, no more than Recha. C.
Ver. 13. Othoniel, first judge. H.
--- He was brother, or rather cousin, of Caleb. See Jos. xv. 17.
Ver. 14. Artificers. Heb. Charashim, which means various sorts of "workmen," (C.) or "father (prince. M.) of Ge-Harasim, for," &c. C.
--- Under this lord the artificers dwelt who built the temple. W.
Ver. 15. Caleb, so memorable (C.) for this fidelity. Num. xii. 30. and xxxii. 12. H.
Ver. 18. Judaia, a second wife, of his own nation. By the first, from Egypt, Mered had Miriam, &c. Some words seem to be lost, which render it doubtful to whom Judaia was married.
Ver. 19. Odaia, perhaps the same with Judaia, (C.) as the Sept. read.
--- Who was. Heb. and Sept. "Machatha," (H.) a place to the north of Basan, far from the limits of Juda, whence we should, perhaps, read Menuchat, as C. ii. 52. 54.
Ver. 21. Her. Hitherto we have seem the possessions of the descendants of Phares. Those of Her inhabited the country rendered famous by the exploits of Samson with the jaw bone. Judg. xv. 9. C.
--- The first-born of Sela was called Her, after his unfortunate uncle. Gen. xxxviii. 7. H.
--- That wrought. Sept. take it for a proper name, "Ebdath." Heb. Beth-habodath habuts, "the house of the byssus, or fine linen manufacturers in Beth-Ashbaah," (H.) which is, perhaps, the same with Beersabee, "the well of swearing." Gen. xxi. 31. C.
--- Oath. The Latin word juramenti, might be retained here, as well as Calor. C. ii. 55. See 2 K. xxi. 19. Sept. read, "Esoba," as the proper name of a place. H.
Ver. 22. He, that made, &c. viz. Joazim, the meaning of whose name in Hebrew, is, he that made the sun to stand. In like manner the following names, Lying, (Cozeba) Secure, (Joash) and Burning, (Saraph) are substituted in place of the Hebrew names of the same signification. Ch.
--- The first etymology is not perfectly accurate, as Jokim means simply, "he made to stand;" Jachin, the pillar which Solomon erected, has the same import. H.
--- Some injudicious person seems to have placed the sun in the margin, whence it has crept into the text. T.
--- It might be occasioned by the fable of the Rabbins, who assert (H.) that Elimelech wrought the like miracle as Josue, to convince the people of Bethlehem of the necessity of being converted; but, finding them incorrigible, denounced a famine, which forced him to retire with his family into the country of Moab. S. Jer. Trad. &c.
--- Elimelech died in that country; but these four descendants of Sela retired, probably, along with him, and returned afterwards to Lehem, or Bethlehem, as it is customary to omit a part of a word. T.
--- This town was peopled by different branches of Juda's family, v. 4, and C. ii. 54. C.
--- Lahem, &c. Sept. seem to leave the original terms: "he made them return to Abedderim Athoukiim."
--- Who returned, is also left as a proper name by the Prot. (H.) &c. "And Jasubi Lehem." Vat. M.
--- It is not easy to decide, when the Hebrew words should be translated.
--- Old. Heb. "and ancient words;" (H.) records, shewing where these families resided, (C.) unless this be also the name (H.) of a place. Sept.
Ver. 23. Potters. Heb. yotserim, may also designate some family, as it seems improbable that the princes, in Moab, should be reduced to so mean a condition. But we have many examples of such a fall; (H.) and it is supposed, that these descendants of Sela were employed by the king of Babylon, at Nethaim and Gadera. C.
--- Hedges. These are the proper names of the places where they dwelt. In Hebrew, Netahim and Gedera. Ch.
--- Sept. "Ataim and Gadera." H.
--- The correct Roman edition of the Vulg. prints these words, plantationibus et Sepibus, with large letters, to imply as much. M.
--- King; David. Sa. M.
--- Many of the tribe of Juda attended David, while he was forced to flee before Saul, and to hide himself in unfrequented places. Some of them might be these Yotserim, or they might follow the profession of potters. H.
--- "With the king they were powerful in his kingdom, and dwelt there." Sept. H.
--- The Vulg. often give the meaning of proper names. D.
Ver. 24. Namuel, or Jamuel. Gen. xlvi. 10.
--- Jarib; perhaps the same with Sohar, (M.) unless the latter be Zara, or Zare. Num. xxvi. 12. These genealogies seem different; but the same person (C.) might have many names. D.
Ver. 27. Juda, probably, not even in the following cities, which they inhabited along with them. This tribe of Simeon was always the weakest, and kept close to Juda. See Num. xxvi. 14.
BalaBala, 1 (Gen 14:2). See Segor. — 2. See Baala 2.
Ver. 30. Bathuel appears to be the same with Bethulia. Judith vi. 7. C.
BathuelBathuel (1Chron 4:30; Simeon). See Bethul. --- Bathuel appears to be the same with Bethulia. Judith vi. 7. C.
Ver. 31. David, who had Siceleg given to him, 1 K. xxvii. 6. H.
--- After the schism, Juda straitened the tribe of Simeon; so that it was forced to seek for other habitations in Gador, under Ezechias, v. 39, &c. C.
--- It could no longer reside among those of the tribe of Juda, (D.) and acknowledge another king. H.
BethberaiBethberai (1Chron 4:31; Simeon), poss. Bîrein, betw. Cades and Khalasa.
BethmarchabothBethmarchaboth (Josh 19:5; S. Simeon; Josh 15:31, has Medemena). If we should distinguish, Bethmarchaboth might poss. be El-Merqeb, S.W. of the S. end of the Dead Sea.
AsanAsan (Josh 15:42, etc.; Juda): poss. 'Aseileh between Bersabee and Hebron. --- Asan, perhaps Jethnan, or Ain. Jos. xv. 23. and xxi. 15. Syriac adds Ethra. C.
Ver. 33. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.
--- Distribution. Heb. and Sept. "and their genealogy." M.
--- KatalogismoV, may as well have the former signification, "their class;" (H.) though the sequel seems to determine it in the latter sense. D.
BaalBaal (1Chron 4:33), probably identical with Baalath Beer Ramath (Josh 19:8; Simeon), poss. Biâr Mãyîn, or Tell el-Lekiyeh, N. of Bersabee. Baal, or Ballath. Jos. xix. 1.
Ver. 34. Mosabab. This and the following princes joined their forces, to conquer fresh territories from Gador, (H.) or Gadara, near Joppe, (Strabo xvi.) which had been long in the possession (H.) of the Egyptians, (v. 40. C.) or Philistines. Malvenda.
Ver. 40. Cham. It is not certain that the Philistines, who came from the country of the Casluim, were descendants of Mezraim. Gen. x. 14. But it is very clear that the Egyptians sprung from Cham. Ps. lxxvii. 51.
ChamCham. Who resided there, and was worshipped under the name of Jupiter Ammon. Bochart, Phaleg. iv. 1. C.
Ver. 41. Inhabitants. Sept. "and the Mineans." Heb. meyenim, "the inhabitants of Maon," in Arabia. See Judg. x. 11. Syr. and Arab. "the fountains."
Ver. 42. Jesi; perhaps Asaia, by the transposition of one letter; (v. 36. C.) or these chiefs were remote descendants of Jesi, v. 20. H.
--- The expedition probably took place about the same time as the preceding, to avoid the attack of the Assyrians, or of Juda, by retiring farther into Arabia. C.
Ver. 43. Escape the arms of Saul, or of David. D.
--- Day. It seems, therefore, that they escaped captivity, having abandoned their own country; or this was taken from a record, which had been made before that event, and is here inserted by Esdras; though, when he wrote, these Simeonites might have experienced the fate of their brethren, who were led captives in the 6th year of Ezechias. H.