Gen Ex Lev Num Deut Josh Judg Ruth 1 Sam 2 Sam 1 Ki 2 Ki 1 Chron 2 Chron Ezra Neh Tob Jdt Esth Job Ps Prov Eccles Song Wis Sir Isa Jer Lam Bar Ezek Dan Hos Joel Amos Obad Jon Mic Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal 1 Mac 2 Mac
NOW the children of Israel according to their number, the heads of families, captains of thousands and of hundreds, and officers, that served the king according to their companies, who came in and went out every month in the year, under every chief were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 1.  Now.  This list is entirely of a political nature.  It seems to have been made before David had obtained the throne of Israel, (v. 7.) though perhaps the monthly division did not comprise 24,000, before that time.  This regulation was very excellent, and enabled the king to have an army of 300,000 men, at a short notice.  It was not attended with any material inconvenience to the people, as none were on service above a month.


--- Hands.  Commanders in chief.


--- Captains.  Twenty-four in number, with 240 centurions under them.


--- Officers.  Heb. shoterim.  Sept. "scribes," whose employment is not well ascertained.  They perhaps acted as commissaries, or kept an account of the king's troops, and reviewed them.  C.


--- Sept. "and scribes serving the people, and the king's orders respecting the divisions, both coming in and going out, monthly, throughout the year.  One division comprised 24,000 men.

2 Over the first company the first month Jesboam, the son of Zabdiel was chief, and under him were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 2.  Jesboam.  Heb. "Jashobham," as C. xi. 11.  He was the first after Joab, (H.) and a descendant of Pharez, like David, and waiting upon the king in the month of Nisan, which almost agrees with our March (M.) and April.  H.


--- Zabdiel, the Hachmonite, may therefore denote his country; (Kennicott) or Zabdiel might be his ancestor, though the same man has frequently different names.  We find several companions of this general in the sequel.

3 Of the sons of Phares, the chief of all the captains in the host in the first month. 4 The company of the second month was under Dudia, an Ahohite, and after him was another named Macelloth, who commanded a part of the army of four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 4.  Dudia, of Dodi, the father of Eleazar.  C. xi. 12.  C.


--- After him, his substitute.  T.


--- Heb. "and Macelloth, chief also of his course, consisting likewise of 24,000."  H.

5 And the captain of the third company for the third month, was Banaias the son of Joiada the priest: and in his division were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 5.  Priest.  This we read no where else, so that some understand, "a chief officer at court," 2 K. viii. 18.  C.


--- But he might be (H.) of the tribe of Levi.  M.


--- His exploits are mentioned.  C. xi. 21.

6 This is that Banaias the most valiant among the thirty, and above the thirty. And Amizabad his son commanded his company.

Ver. 6.  Company, in his absence, (H.) as lieutenant.  Salien.

7 The fourth, for the fourth month, was Asahel the brother of Joab, and Zabadias his son after him: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 7.  After him.  He acted under his father, and succeeded (M.) to Asahel's post, after Abner had slain him.  2 K. ii. 23. and xxiii. 24.  C.

8 The fifth captain for the fifth month, was Samaoth a Jezerite: and his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 8.  Samaoth.  Perhaps Samma, or Sammoth of Arodi, or Arari; places with which we are not acquainted, unless they denote some of his progenitors.  Jazer is well known.  C.


--- C. xxvi. 34.

9 The sixth, for the sixth month, was Hira the son of Acces a Thecuite: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 9.  Hari.  Mentioned as one of David's brave men.  C. xi. 28.

10 The seventh, for the seventh month, was Helles a Phallonite of the sons of Ephraim: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 10.  Phallonite, or of Phalti.  2 K. xxiii. 26.

11 The eighth, for the eighth month, was Sobochai a Husathite of the race of Zarahi: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 11.  Zarahi, or of Zara, the son of Thamar.  C. xi. 29.  Sobochai slew the giant Saph, 2 K. xxi. 17.

12 The ninth, for the ninth month, was Abiezer an Anathothite of the sons of Jemini, and in His company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 12.  Jemini, or Benjamin.  C.


--- The first syllable is neglected.  M.

13 The tenth, for the tenth month, was Marai, who was a Netophathite of the race of Zarai: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 13.  Marai, or Marahai, sprung from Zara.  C.

14 The eleventh, for the eleventh month, was Banaias, a Pharathonite of the sons of Ephraim: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 14.  Ephraim.  Pharathon was in this tribe.  M.

15 The twelfth, for the twelfth month, was Holdai a Netophathite, of the race of Gothoniel: and in his company were four and twenty thousand.

Ver. 15.  Holdai, called Heled, the son of Baana.  C. xi. 30. and 2 K. xxiii. 29.


--- Gothoniel.  So the Sept. write Othoniel, (H.) so famous in the book of Judges, i. 13. and iii. 9.

16 Now the chiefs over the tribes of Israel were these: over the Rubenites, Eliezer the son of Zechri was ruler: over the Simeonites, Saphatias the son of Maacha:

Ver. 16.  Chiefs, by their birth-right.  The former were chosen for merit.  T.


--- The tribes of Aser and of Gad are omitted, either because the list was not in the hands of the author, or it was overlooked by transcribers.  C.


--- Rubenites, with whom Em. Sa joins the Gadites.  M.

17 Over the Levites, Hasabias the son of Camuel: over the Aaronites, Sadoc: 18 Over Juda, Eliu the brother of David: over Issachar, Amri the son of Michael:

Ver. 18.  Eliu.  Probably the same with Eliab, the eldest son of Isai, (1 K. xvi. 7.  C.) or the youngest but David, (C. ii. 15.) whose name is preserved by the Syriac, &c.

19 Over the Zabulonites, Jesmaias the son of Adias: over the Nephtalites, Jerimoth the son of Ozriel:

20 Over the sons of Ephraim, Osee the: son of Ozaziu: over the half tribe of Manasses, Joel the son of Phadaia: 21 And over the half tribe of Manasses: in Galaad, Jaddo the son of Zacharias: and over Benjamin, Jasiel the son of Abner.

22 And over Dan, Ezrihel the son of Jeroham: these were the princes of the children of Israel.

23 But David would not number them from twenty years old and under: because the Lord had said that he would multiply Israel like the stars of heaven.

Ver. 23.  Heaven.  It would have seemed, therefore, as if David distrusted the divine promise, (H.) and attempted what was impossible (Grot.) or useless.  C.


--- He had before offended, and hence would now only number those who were wanted.  W.

24 Joab the son of Sarvia began to number, but he finished not: because upon this there fell wrath upon Israel: and therefore the number of them that were numbered, was not registered in the chronicles of king David.

Ver. 24.  Number, those above 20; but he acted with reluctance, (T.) and the wrath of heaven prevented the entire completion of the king's order.  C. xxi. 6. and 2 K. xxiv. 9.


--- David.  It would hence appear that the list was perfected, but not delivered to the king.  The commissioners retained some of the lists; and, perhaps from these, Esdras has inserted what relates to Benjamin, (C. vii. 6.) as the account was not given in C. xxi. 6.  C.


--- This list may, however, have been made at another time; as we are informed that Benjamin and Levi were not numbered.  H.


--- The Book of Kings, where we find it, is therefore a different work.  D.


25 And over the king's treasures was Azmoth the son of Adiel: and over those stores which were in the cities, and is the villages, and in the castles, was Jonathan the son of Ozias.

Ver. 25.  Treasures of gold, &c. as those of provisions had other officers.  C.


--- Were in.  Heb. and Sept. add, "the fields, in the cities," &c.  H.


--- This must be understood of corn; wine is mentioned afterwards.  Nothing could give us a higher opinion of David's wisdom than these details.

26 And over the tillage, and the husbandmen, who tilled the ground, was Ezri the son of Chelub:

Ver. 26.  Ground, for the king.  This was done at the expense of the nation, and by the people, no less than the vintage.  2 K. viii. 12.  The companions of Daniel were thus appointed to superintend the workmen of Nabuchodonosor.  Dan. ii. 49.  Xenophon (Cyrop. viii.) styles such, ergwn epistataV, "men set over the works."  H.

27 And over the dressers of the vineyards, was Semeias a Romathite: and over the wine cellars, Zabdias an Aphonite.

Ver. 27.  Cellars.  Heb. "over the increase of the vineyards, for the wine cellars."  Prot.  Wine was formerly kept in cisterns, in the vineyards, till it was taken into large earthen vessels,and placed in cellars.

28 And over the oliveyards and the fig groves, which were in the plains, was Balanam a Gederite: and over the oil cellars, Joas. 29 And over the herds that fed in Saron, was Setrai a Saronite: and over the. oxen in the valleys, Saphat the son of Adli:

Ver. 29.  Saron, a fertile region at the food of the mountains of Galaad; also a vale near the Mediterranean, (C.) in Ephraim, extending as far as Joppe.  Adric.  M.

30 And over the camels, Ubil an Ishmahelite: and over the asses, Jadias a Meronathite:

Ver. 30.  Ismahelite.  People of that nation deal much in camels.  C.


--- Ubil had embraced the Jewish religion, or perhaps he was originally an Israelite, but had acquired the title of Ismahelite by some exploit, or by residing long in the country.  M.

31 And over the sheep Jazia an Agarene. All these were the rulers of the substance of king David. 32 And Jonathan David's uncle, a counsellor, a wise and learned man: he and Jahiel the son of Hachamoni were with the king's sons.

Ver. 32.  Man.  Heb. "a writer."  He was a good politician and lawyer.  Grot.


--- Sons, as tutors.  D.  C.


--- Jahiel was perhaps the brother of Jesbaam.  C. xi. 11.  M.

33 And Achitophel was the king's counsellor, and Chusai the Arachite, the king's friend.

Ver. 33.  Friend.  Chusai rendered the most signal service to the king, 2 K. xvi. 23. and xvii. 1.  C.

34 And after Achitophel was Joiada the son of Banaias, and Abiathar. And the general of the king's army was Joab.

Ver. 34.  After,  inferior, (Salien) as Achitophel's advice was esteemed like an oracle, (C.) or Joiada, a chief priest, and Abiathar, the pontiff, succeeded to his place, after he had hung himself.  T.  D.

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