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AND these are the sons of Israel: Ruben, Simeon, Levi, Juda, Issachar, and Zabulon,

Ver. 1.  Israel, "seeing, or valiant with God," was before called Jacob, or "a supplanter."  Gen. xxxv.  W.


2 Dan, Joseph, Benjamin, Nephtali, Gad, and Aser.

Ver. 2.  Aser.  They are not placed in the order of their birth.  H.


3 The sons of Juda: Her, Onan and Sela. These three were born to him of the Chanaanitess the daughter of Sue. And Her the firstborn of Juda, was wicked in the sight of the Lord, and he slew him.

Ver. 3.  Her.  The crime for which he was punished is not specified in Scripture.  C.


--- The Rabbins say that he was so enamoured of the beauty of his wife, that he treated her in the same manner as Onan did afterwards.  Cassian viii. 11.


--- It is supposed that he was slain by a devil, (C.) like the (T.) impure husbands of Sarai.  Tob. vi. 14.  H.


4 And Thamar his daughter in law bore him Phares and Zara. So all the sons of Juda were five.


5 And the sons of Phares, were Hesron and Hamul.


6 And the sons also of Zare: Zamri, and Ethan, and Eman, and Chalchal, and Dara, five in all.

Ver. 6.  Zamri, or Zabdi.  Jos. vii. 1.


--- Etham.  Similar names occur 3 K. iv. 30.  But they seem to have been different persons.

7 And the sons of Charmi: Achar, who troubled Israel, and sinned by the theft of the anathema.

Ver. 7.  Achar, alias Achan, (Josue vii.  Ch.) which was his real name, as the former was given him (C.) in consequence of his having "troubled" Israel.  D.


--- One letter may have been mistaken.  W.


--- It may seem more probable that Achar, which appears invaribly in the Vat. Sept. and Syriac, is the proper name.  Kennicott.


--- Anathema, the thing devoted or accursed, viz. the spoils of Jericho.  Ch.


8 The sons of Ethan: Azarias, 9 And the sons of Hesron that were born to him: Jerameel, and Ram, and Calubi.


10 And Ram beget Aminadab, and Aminadab beget Nahasson, prince of the children of Juda.

Ver. 10.  Ram.  He is commonly called Aram.  But it is to be observed here, once for all, that it was a common thing among the Hebrews for the same person to have different names: and that it is not impossible among so many proper names, as here occur in the first nine chapters of this book, that the transcribers of the ancient Hebrew copies may have made some slips in the orthography.  Ch.


--- Juda.  Probably the first, appointed by Moses in the desert.  Num. i. 7. and vii. 12.

11 And Nahasson beget Salma, the father of Boot.

Ver. 11.  Salma.  Sept. have "Salmon," as it is written Ruth iv. 20.  Mat. i. 4.

12 And Boot beget Obed, and Obed beget Isai.
13 And Isai beget Eliab his firstborn, the second Abinadab, the third Simmaa,


14 The fourth, Nathanael, the fifth Raddai, 15 The sixth Asom, the seventh David.

Ver. 15.  Seventh.  Syriac and Arab. add, "Eliu, (C. xxvii. 18.) and the eighth David."  It appears, in effect, the Isai had eight sons, and that David was the youngest.  1 K. xvi. 10. and xvii. 12.  The Rabbins suppose that one was only adopted, namely, Jonathan, the son of Samma, noted for his prudence and valour.  2 K. xiii. 3. and xxi. 21.  C.


--- One might die in his youth, and be therefore omitted, (T.) as he had done nothing memorable.  D.


--- The Scripture does not always specify the full number.  Abul.

16 And their sisters were Sarvia, and Abigail. The sons of Sarvia: Abisai, Joab, and Asael, three.

Ver. 16.  Sarvia.  The honour shewn to the sisters of David is unusual.  The father of the three valiant children of Sarvia is no where specified.

17 And Abigail bore Amasa, whose father was Jether the Ismahelite.

Ver. 17.  Ismahelite, or more correctly, "Jethra, of Jezrahel;" (2 K. xvii. 25.) though the Heb. and Sept. in that place read "Israelite," which would be a trifling remark; and it is improbable that Isai would give his daughter to a descendant of Ismahel.  C.


--- The person might, however, have resided among them.  D.

18 And Caleb the son of Hesron took a wife named Azuba, of whom he had Jerioth: and her sons were Jaser, and Sobab, and Ardon.

Ver. 18.  Caleb, alias Calubi, v. 9.  Ch.  W.


--- He is different from Caleb, the son of Jephone.


--- Took, &c.  Heb. "begot Azuba, Ischa, and Jerioth;" or rather with the Sept. "took to wife Gazuba and Jerioth."  C.


--- Syr. and Arab. "Caleb had Jerioth by his wife Azuba."  We know that the latter was his wife, (v. 19.) and this seems to be the true reading.  As ath signifies "of or from," (Noldius) the Heb. only requires a small correction.  As it stands at present, it means, "Caleb begot Azuba, a woman, (or wife) and Jerioth."  Prot. supply, "begat children of Azuba, his wife, and of Jerioth."  Kennicott.


--- Her sons.  The original determines us to read her, instead of "his," as ejus would as naturally be understood.  If Jerioth was not the wife, she seems to have been the daughter of Caleb; as Jaser, &c. were his sons.  H.

19 And when Azuba was dead, Caleb took to wife Ephrata: who bore him Hur.

20 And Hur beget Uri: and Uri beget Bezeleel.

Ver. 20.  Bezeleel, the famous artist, (Ex. xxxi. 2.  C.) or a different person.  D.


--- The Rabbins, who confound Caleb with the son of Jephone, say that he espoused Ephrata, or Mary, the sister of Moses, when he was ten years old, that Ur and Uri had each a child at eight, and the Bezeleel began to work at the tabernacle before he was nine years old.  Lyran.


--- But this is extravagant, and the Bezeleel here mentioned was of the family of Hesron.  C.

21 And afterwards Hesron went in to the daughter of Machir the father of Galaad, and took her to wife when he was threescore years old: and she bore him Segub.

Ver. 21.  Machir, grandson of Joseph, whose descendants occupied part of Galaad, (H.) of which he is styled the father, or prince.  M.


--- The daughter of Machir was probably an heiress, and Segub dwelt with his mother's tribe.  C.

22 And Segub beget Jair, and he had three and twenty cities in the land of Galaad.

23 And he took Gessur, and Aram the towns of Jair, and Canath, and the villages thereof, threescore cities. All these, the sons of Machir father of Galaad.

Ver. 23.  Aram.  Prot. add "with the towns of Jair from them," the former possessors; (H.) or Gessur assisted Aram (Syria) in attacking Israel, 4 K. x. 32.  C.


--- All these villages.  Prot. supply, "belonged to the sons."  Sept. "were of the sons."  All these were dependencies of Machir, "prince" of Galaad; in which sense father is taken, v. 24.  M.


--- Sons often denote nephews, &c.  W.


Aram, when placed alone, properly means Syria; but when Padan or Naharaim are added, Mesopotamia is meant, whence Balaam came. Deut. xxii. 5.


Canath. This town is reckoned among those of Jair, (1 Par. ii. 23,) either because Nobe conquered it under his banners, or because it fell to the share of Jair, after the death of Nobe. C.

24 And when Hesron was dead, Caleb went in to Ephrata. Hesron also had to wife Abia who bore him Ashur the father of Thecua.

Ver. 24.  Hesron.  Perhaps it ought to be Azuba, v. 19.  Heb. "and after Hesron was dead, in Caleb-ephrata, then Abia, the wife of Hesron, bore him a (posthumous) son, Ashur, the father of those who dwelt at Thecua."  He could not reside there himself no more than Caleb did at Bethlehem, which some, without proof, pretend was called Caleb-ephrata.  The Sept. agree with the Vulg.  They may signify that Caleb went to the town of Ephrata.  But he son of Hebron certainly never resided at Bethlehem.  C.

25 And the sons of Jerameel the firstborn of Hesron, were Ram his firstborn, and Buna, and Aram, and Asom, and Achia.

Ver. 25.  And, is not in Heb.  Achia, which may also signify "her sister."  Sept. "brother."  Others take (C.) Achia to be the first wife of Jerameel.  Jan.

26 And Jerameel married another wife, named Atara, who was the mother of Onam. 27 And the sons of Ram the firstborn of Jerameel, were Moos, Jamin, and Achar. 28 And Onam had sons Semei, and Jada. And the sons of Semei: Nadab, and Abisur. 29 And the name of Abisur's wife was Abihail, who bore him Ahobban, and Molid. 30 And the sons of Nadab were Saled, and Apphaim. And Saled died without children. 31 But the son of Apphaim was Jesi: and Jesi beget Sesan. And Sesan beget Oholai.

Ver. 31.  Oholai, a daughter, (v. 34.  T.) unless this son died before his father.  Vatab.

32 And the sons of Jada the brother of Semei: Jether and Jonathan. And Jether also died without children.

33 But Jonathan beget Phaleth, and Ziza, These were the sons of Jerameel. 34 And Sesan had no sons, but daughters and a servant an Egyptian, named Jeraa. 35 And he gave him his daughter to wife: and she bore him Ethei. 36 And Ethei begot Nathan, and Nathan beget Zabad.
37 And Zabad beget Ophlal, and Ophlal beget Obed. 38 Obed beget Jehu, Jehu beget Azarias. 39 Azarias beget Helles, and Helles begot Elasa. 40 Elasa beget Sisamoi, Sisamoi beget Sellum, 41 Sellum beget Icamia, and Icamia begot Elisama. 42 Now the sons of Caleb the brother of Jerameel were Mesa his firstborn, who was the father of Siph: and the sons of Maresa father of Hebron.

Ver. 42.  Caleb, or Calubi, v. 9.  Ziph, Maresa, and Hebron, are the names of towns, as well as of men.  The descendants of Mesa inhabited Ziph, and those of Maresa dwelt at Hebron.  The same remark will hold good in other places, where the names of places are put for those who occupied them.  C.


--- And the sons.  Heb. "and of the sons of Maresa."  Vat.


--- But it may be as well explained in the sense of the Vulg.  Sept. "Marisa, his first-born.  He was the father of Ziph, and the sons of Marisa, of the father of Hebron."


--- Father.  Lit. "of the father," patris Hebron.  H.

43 And the sons of Hebron, Core, and Thaphua, and Recem, and Samma.

44 And Samma beget Raham, the father of Jercaam, and Recem beget Sammai. 45 The son of Sammai, Maon: and Maon the father of Bethsur.

46 And Epha the concubine of Caleb bore Haran, and Mesa, and Gezez. And Haran beget Gezez.

47 And the sons of Jahaddai, Rogom, and Joathan, and Gesan, and Phalet, and Epha, and Saaph.

Ver. 47.  Jahaddai.  His name occurs not before.  Some suppose he was the son of Mosa: perhaps a verse may be lost, as the Syr. and Arab. pass over this and the two following verses.

48 And Maacha the concubine of Caleb bore Saber, and Tharana.

49 And Saaph the father of Madmena beget Sue the father of Machbena, and the father of Gabaa. And the daughter of Caleb was Achsa.

Ver. 49.  Achsa, different from Axa, the grand-daughter of Jephone.  Judg. i. 12.  H.


--- Both had daughters of the same name.  D.

50 These were the sons of Caleb, the son of Hur the firstborn of Ephrata, Sobal the father of Cariathiarim.

Ver. 50.  Caleb, grandson of Calubi.  Vatab. &c.


--- Sobal, his descendant, was prince of those who established themselves at Cariathiarim.  C.


--- The Alex. Sept. seems rather to assert that he was son of Hur, as well as those who follow.  "The sons of Hur...Sobal...Salomon, father of Baithlammon, father of Bethleem."  But the editions vary.  H.

51 Salma the father of Bethlehem, Hariph the father of Bethgader.


Bethlehem of Juda, where Booz also was born. C. --- That place was, moreover, to be honoured with the birth of the Messias. S. Aug. q. 165. --- Ephrata: another name of Bethlehem. Ch.

52 And Sobal the father of Cariathiarim had sons: he that saw half of the places of rest.

Ver. 52.  He that saw, &c.  The Latin interpreter seems to have given us here, instead of the proper names, the meaning of those names in the Hebrew.  He has done in like manner, v. 55, (Ch.) and in many other places.  D.


--- Heb. "had sons, haroe cha hamenuchoth, (H.) or Raia, Roeh, (C. iv. 2.) and Chazi of the canton of Menuchat, near Babaa.  C. viii. 6. and Judg. xx. 43.  Sept. mention Manocho.  Jos. xv. 60.


--- We may also translate "the father of Cariathiarim, the prince of half Manuchat, had sons who peopled different cities."  It seems too harsh to call a man "half the place of rest," or "seeing from the moiety of rest," though the Heb. has this literal signification.  The Sept. give proper names, (C.) "Araa, Esei, Ammanith," (but v. 55, half of Manath) and the Prot. "Haroeh and half of the Manahattites."  H.


--- Sobal left to his descendants half the country which he had quietly occupied.

53 And of the kindred of Cariathiarim, the Jethrites, and Aphuthites, and Semathites, and Maserites. Of them came the Saraites, and Esthaolites.

Ver. 53.  Kindred.  Sept. "Oumasphas."  H.


--- Esthaolites.  All these places were in Juda, (C.) or perhaps (H.) the two last in Dan, (M.) or occupied by both tribes.  Abul. q. 8.

54 The sons of Salma, Bethlehem, and Netophathi, the crowns of the house of Joab, and half of the place of rest of Sarai.

Ver. 54.  Salma, or Salmon's descendants, people Bethlehem, &c.


--- Crowns.  Valiant heroes who assisted Joab to gain crowns.  W.


--- Heb. "Hateroth," the house (Sept. Alex. of the house of Jobab) of Joab; (H.) perhaps the famous general who had land near Absalom's, on the frontiers of Ephraim, where Ataroth was situated.


--- And half.  Heb. "half of the Manahethites."  Prot. (H.) or "of Menuchat, towards Zarai."  The author seems purposely to mention to whom the cities at first belonged, that the right owners might be reinstated in their possessions, at their return from Babylon.  C.


--- This verse may specify six towns, Bethlehem and Netophat, (H.) Beth-Joab, Chatsi, Manachti, and Atsothi.


Bethlehem of Juda, where Booz also was born. C. --- That place was, moreover, to be honoured with the birth of the Messias. S. Aug. q. 165. --- Ephrata: another name of Bethlehem. Ch.

55 And the families of the scribes that dwell in Jabes, singing and making melody, and abiding in tents. These are the Cinites, who came of Calor (Chamath) father of the house of Rechab,

Ver. 55.  Scribes, learned in the law.  M.


--- Singing, &c.  The different professions of the Rechabites are here given, instead of proper names, (C.) which the Vat. Sept. retains.


--- Thargathiim and Samathiim, Sochathim.


--- Heb. Tirhatim, "porters;" (Chal.) Shimhathim, "the obedient;" Sucathim, "the inhabitants of tents;" Calor, "the heat," as the Heb. Chamath (Prot. Hemath) signifies.  The Cinites dwelt on the south of Juda, for which reason they are probably here mentioned, though some of them also inhabited Jabes Galaad, while the Rechabites dwelt in tents, (H.) and were perhaps employed as porters in the temple.  C.  Jer. xxxv. 5. 19.

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