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ADAM, Seth, Enos,

THE FIRST BOOK OF PARALIPOMENON.

 

INTRODUCTION.

 

These Books are called by the Greek Interpreters, Paralipomenon; (Paraleipomenwn,) that is, of things left out, or omitted; because they are a kind of supplement of such things as were passed over in the Books of Kings.  The Hebrews call them, Dibre Hajamim; that is, The words of the days, or The Chronicles.  Not that they are the books which are so often quoted in the Kings, under the title of, The Words of the days of the kings of Israel, and of the kings of Juda; for the Books of Paralipomenon were written after the Books of Kings; but because, in all probability, they have been abridged from those ancient words of the days, by Esdras, or some other sacred author.  Ch.

 

--- The author of this compilation refers to the same works, 2 Par. xvi. 11. &c.  These journals were principally composed by prophets, though there were other people appointed to write the most important occurrences.  2 K. viii. 16.  4 K. xviii. 18.  The genealogies of families, particularly of the Levites, and the interests of piety and religion, are kept most in view.  C.

 

--- The variations which appear between this work and the other parts of Scripture, are owing to the faults of transcribers; and, though they could not be satisfactorily explained, it would be rashness to condemn the author of inaccuracy, at this distance of time, when we know so little of those transactions.  H.

 

--- Who calls in question the history of Alexander, though the different authors of it scarcely agree in one calculation of the number of troops, nations conquered, &c.?"  Yet the work before us is of far higher authority, as it was dictated by the Holy Ghost.  C.

 

--- "Without it, a person would in vain pretend to understand the Scriptures."  It is "an epitome of the Old Testament," and "explains many difficulties of the gospels."  S. Jerom.

 

--- The author does not, however, seem to have designed to draw up an exact epitome, or to supply the deficiencies of the other works.  C.

 

--- The first nine chapters contain various genealogical histories.  In the 10th, we have the election and death of Saul; and in the remainder of the first book, the transactions of David, (W.) till the year 2990, where the second book commences with the reign of Solomon, and brings us to the end of the captivity.  A.M. 3468.  C.


Ver. 1.  Seth.  Prot. "Sheth, Enosh, Kenan:" but in Genesis they agree with us, which shews that the translator of the two different books is different, and that there is a want of uniformity in the plan adopted by king James I.  H.

 

--- The posterity of Cain is neglected, as it all perished in the deluge.  C.



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2 Cainan, Malaleel, Jared, 3 Henoc, Mathusale, Lamech, 4 Noe, Sem, Cham, and Japheth.

Ver. 4.  Noe begot Sem, Cham, and Japheth.  (H.)  See Gen. x.  The author passes lightly over some of the descendants of the two latter, as he had David's genealogy principally in view.


5 The sons of Japheth: Gomer, and Magog, and Madai, and Javan, Thubal, Mosoch, Thiras.


6 And the sons of Gomer: Ascenez, and Riphath, and Thogorma.

Ver. 6.  Riphath.  Heb. begins with D.  C.

 

--- But the Prot. correct it (H.) according to the book of Gen. and the Sept.  The two letters are very much alike.



Ascenez

Ascenez, or Ascantes, (C.) near the Tanais. Pliny vi. 7.

7 And the sons of Javan: Elisa and Tharsis, Cethim and Dodanim.

Ver. 7.  Dodanim.  Heb. has R, conformably to the Samar. copy of Genesis, and the Sept. translate the Rhodians.  Yet Dodanim seems more accurate, (C.) and is retained by the Prot.  H.



Cethim

Cethim; Cyrus, or rather Macedonia. --- Cethim; Macedon. It here denotes the western nations, as Cedar does those of the east.

8 The sons of Cham: Chus, and Mesrai, and Phut, and Chaanan. 9 And the sons of Chus: Saba, and Hevila, Sabatha, and Regma, and Sabathaca. And the sons of Regma: Saba, and Dadan.

Saba

Saba is written with sh, to denote a part of Arabia, and with s, when Ethiopia is meant. Ps. lxxi. 10. The former is here designated, (M.) being "the ends of the earth, east" of Judea, (Tacit. Hist. v.) and lying also to the south of that country. Matt. xii. 42. This region was famous for gold, &c. and acknowledged the dominion of women: "Medis levibusque Sabæis Imperat hic sexus." Claud. Eutrop. i. Grotius follows the opinion of Josephus (viii. 6.) and Origen, (hom. 2. in Cant.) who place the seat of this queen's empire at Meroe. The Abyssinians also pretend that their kings are descendants of Solomon, by the queen of Saba; and that Azarias, the son of Sadoc, stole the tables of the law, when he brought back his pupil from Jerusalem. Sanctius.

10 Now Chus begot Nemrod: he began to be mighty upon earth.

Ver. 10.  Earth, first establishing the monarchy of Babylon, and building the castle.  D.



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11 But Mesraim begot Ludim, and Anamim, and Laabim, and Nephtuim, 12 Phetrusim also, and Casluim: from whom came the Philistines, and Caphtorim.

Ver. 12.  Philistines, a colony from Crete.

13 And Chanaan beget Sidon his firstborn, and the Hethite,


14 And the Jebusite, and the Amorrhite, and the Gergesite,


15 And the Hevite, and the Aracite, and the Sinite, 16 And the Aradian, and the Samarite, and the Hamathite. 17 The sons of Sem: Elam and Asur, and Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram, and Hus, and Hul, and Gether, and Mosoch.

Ver. 17.  Hus and Hul were the immediate sons of Aram, as well as...Mosoch, or Mes; (Gen. x. 23.  C.) so that there seems to be here some transposition.  D.



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18 And Arphaxad beget Sale, and Sale beget Heber.

Ver. 18.  Sale.  The Rom. Sept. omits v. 11 to 17, and v. 18 to 24, having only, (17) "The sons of Sem, Ailam and Assur; (24) and Arphaxad, Sala."  H.

 

--- But the other copies here insert Cainan, as the father of Sale.  See Gen. x. 24.  C.

 

--- It is a matter of great doubt whether he ought not to be inserted.  Lu. iii.  H.


19 And to Heber were born two sons, the name of the one was Phaleg, because In his days the earth was divided; and the name of his brother was Jectan.

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20 And Jectan beget Elmodad, and Saleph, and Asarmoth, and Jare, 21 And Adoram, and Usal, and Decla, 22 And Hebal, and Abimael, and Saba,

Saba

Saba is written with sh, to denote a part of Arabia, and with s, when Ethiopia is meant. Ps. lxxi. 10. The former is here designated, (M.) being "the ends of the earth, east" of Judea, (Tacit. Hist. v.) and lying also to the south of that country. Matt. xii. 42. This region was famous for gold, &c. and acknowledged the dominion of women: "Medis levibusque Sabæis Imperat hic sexus." Claud. Eutrop. i. Grotius follows the opinion of Josephus (viii. 6.) and Origen, (hom. 2. in Cant.) who place the seat of this queen's empire at Meroe. The Abyssinians also pretend that their kings are descendants of Solomon, by the queen of Saba; and that Azarias, the son of Sadoc, stole the tables of the law, when he brought back his pupil from Jerusalem. Sanctius.

23 And Ophir, and Hevila, and Jobab. All these are the sons of Jectan.


24 Sem, Arphaxad, Sale,

Ver. 24.  Sem begot Arphaxad.  M.


25 Heber, Phaleg, Ragau, 26 Serug, Nachor, Thare,

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27 Abram, this is Abraham.

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28 And the sons of Abraham, Isaac and Ismahel. 29 And these are the generations of them. The firstborn of Ismahel, Nabajoth, then Cedar, and Adbeel, and Mabsam,

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30 And Masma, and Duma, Massa, Hadad, and Thema, 31 Jetur, Naphis, Cedma: these are the sons of Ismahel.


32 And the sons of Cetura, Abraham's concubine, whom she bore: Zamran, Jecsan, Madan, Madian, Jesboc, and Sue. And the sons of Jecsan, Saba, and Dadan. And the sons of Dadan: Assurim, and Latussim, and Laomin.

Ver. 32.  Concubine.  She was his lawful wife, but of an inferior degree, and such were called concubines.  Ch.

 

--- She has the title of wife, Gen. xxv. 1.

 

--- And the sons of Dadan, &c. seems to be copied from Genesis, as the addition is not found in many Lat. MSS. no more than in the Heb. or Sept.  C.



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Saba

Saba is written with sh, to denote a part of Arabia, and with s, when Ethiopia is meant. Ps. lxxi. 10. The former is here designated, (M.) being "the ends of the earth, east" of Judea, (Tacit. Hist. v.) and lying also to the south of that country. Matt. xii. 42. This region was famous for gold, &c. and acknowledged the dominion of women: "Medis levibusque Sabæis Imperat hic sexus." Claud. Eutrop. i. Grotius follows the opinion of Josephus (viii. 6.) and Origen, (hom. 2. in Cant.) who place the seat of this queen's empire at Meroe. The Abyssinians also pretend that their kings are descendants of Solomon, by the queen of Saba; and that Azarias, the son of Sadoc, stole the tables of the law, when he brought back his pupil from Jerusalem. Sanctius.

33 And the sons of Madian: Epha, and Epher, and Henoch, and Abida, and Eldaa. All these are the sons of Cetura.

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34 And Abraham beget Isaac: and his sons were Esau and Israel.

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35 The sons of Esau: Eliphaz, Rahuel, Jehus, Ihelom, and Core.

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36 The sons of Eliphaz: Theman, Omar, Sephi, Gathan, Cenez, and by Thamna, Amalec.

Ver. 36.  And by.  This serves to explain the difficulty; as Thamna would otherwise seem to be a daughter of Eliphaz, though we know she was his concubine.  Gen. xxxvi. 12.  H.

 

--- The Heb., Rom. Sept. Syr., and Latin, suppose that Thamna was the brother of Amalec; but the Alex. Sept. has, "Now Thamna, the concubine of Eliphaz, bore Amalec."  Arab. "And Thamna, who was the concubine of Eliphaz, the son of Esau, bore him Amalec," which seems to be the true reading.  Kennicott.

 

--- Heb. "And Timna and Amalek," (Prot.  H.) which confounds the sense.  Mariana.  D.




37 The sons of Rahuel: Nahath, Zara, Samma, Meza. 38 The sons of Seir: Lotan. Sobal, Sebeen, Ana, Dison, Eser, Disan.

Ver. 38.  Seir, not Esau, but the Horrite, (Gen. xxxvi. 20.  M.) which is added in order to explain the origin of Thamna.  D.



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39 The sons of Lotan: Hori, Homam. And the sister of Lotan was Thamna. 40 The sons of Sobal: Alian, and Manahath, and Ebal, Sephi and Onam. The sons of Sebeon: Aia, and Ana. The son of Ana: Dison.

Ver. 40.  Dixon.  We must add Oolibama.  Gen. xxxvi. 25.




41 The sons of Dison: Hamram, and Eseban, and Jethran, and Charan.

Ver. 41.  Hamram.  In Gen. Hamdan.  Two letters have been mistaken since the Chaldee characters have been adopted.  C.

 

--- On this occasion, we may briefly remark, 1. The most learned fathers have admitted such mistakes in Scripture: yet these are not to be corrected by each one's private judgment, but we must all abide by the determination of the Church, which is plainly appointed for our guide in the infallible word of God.  2. To obviate the objections of infidels, respecting the apparent contradictions of Scripture, particularly in these books, we must observe that many people and places had different names; 3. And those who had the saem were really distinct.  4. Frequently also grandchildren, and those who have been adopted, are mentioned as the immediate offspring.  5. Some mysterious numbers are specified, as fourteen in the genealogy of Christ, though the history allows more.  6. Odd numbers are sometimes neglected.  7. Often a part is put for the whole, or on the contrary; as Christ is said to have been dead three days, though he was only one whole day and part of two others: and in the reigns of different kings, in the same year, the different parts are assigned to each, as a whole year.  8. Sometimes two reigned together, as Joathan ruled while Ozias was still living, (4 K. xv.) and so both reigns are sometimes counted, and, at other times, their respective years.  9. The interregnums are either omitted in calculations, or added to the years of the next ruler.  10. Only the years that a person governed well are sometimes noticed, as Saul is said to have reigned two years, (1 K. xiii.) though his administration continued much longer.  Some of these rules may be applied to most of the scriptural difficulties, as the spirit of God could not dictate any falsehood.  At the same time we must be forced to acknowledge that the Scriptures are hard to be understood, 2 Peter i. 20. (W.) and iii. 16; and this may serve to exercise the genius, and to humble the pride of man.  H.


42 The sons of Eser: Balaan, and Zavan, and Jacan. The sons of Disan: Hus and Aran. 43 Now these are the kings that reigned in the land of Edom, before there was a king over the children of Israel: Bale the son of Beer: and the name of his city was Denaba.

Ver. 43.  Israel.  The same remark had been made in Gen. xxxvi. 31.  It is wonderful that the author of this work gives us no further information, when so many revolutions had since occurred.  C.

 

--- But he might content himself with repeating the words of Moses.  H.

 

--- The eight kings here specified must have reigned each 50 years, which is not impossible.  David conquered the country under Adad.



Beer

Beer (Num 21:16; D.V.: "the well"), prob. in the Wâdy Themed, S.S.E. of Madâba.

44 And Bale died, and Jobab the son of Zare of Bosra, reigned in his stead.

Bosra

Bosra, 1 (Isa 63:1; Edom): Buseireh, S. of the Dead Sea. — 2 (Josh 21:27), mistranslation for Astaroth. — 3 (Jer 48:24): Bosor, 1. --- Bosra, or Bezer, was the capital of Idumea, in the tribe of Ruben. C.

45 And when Jobab also was dead, Husam of the land of the Themanites reigned in his stead. 46 And Husam also died, and Adad the son of Badad reigned in his stead, and he defeated the Madianites in the land of Moab: and the name of his city was Avith.

Avith

Avith (Gen 36:35; Edom), perhaps in the neighbourhood of the Jebel el-Ghuweiteh, E. of the Dead Sea.

47 And when Adad also was dead, Semla of Masreca reigned in his stead.


48 Semla also died, and Saul of Rohoboth, which is near the river, reigned in his stead.

Ver. 48.  River.  Euphrates is commonly so designated.  See Gen. x. 11.  C.

 

--- Pagnin translates, "from the river Rohoboth."  D.




49 And when Saul was dead, Balanan the son of Achobor reigned in his stead. 50 He also died, and Adad reigned in his stead: and the name of his city was Phau, and his wife was called Meetabel the daughter of Matred, the daughter of Mezaab.

Ver. 50.  Mezaab.  It is unusual for the Scripture to mark so particularly the genealogy of a woman.  We might translate the Heb. "a native, or who was a native of Mezaab," which is probably the same with Dizahab, "abundance of gold."  Deut. i. 1.  Mezaab signifies, "waters of gold," (C.) or "whose is gold," whence some infer that the woman was very rich, (Lyran) or had discovered the art of drawing gold thread.  Abul.

 

--- It is more probably a proper name.  M.




51 And after the death of Adad, there began to be dukes in Edom instead of kings: duke Thamna, duke Alva, duke Jetheth,

Ver. 51.  Kings.  Heb. "Adad also died, and the dukes of Edom were duke Thamna, &c.  H.

 

--- This, and the following names, designate the place of their residence.  M.

 

--- The same forms of government prevailed in Idumea, as among the Hebrews, who had judges or dukes, then kings, and, after the captivity, dukes, till the time of the Machabees.  T.




52 Duke Oolibama, duke Ela, duke Phinon, 53 Duke Cenez, duke Theman, duke Mabsar, 54 Duke Magdiel, duke Hiram. These are the dukes of Edom.


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