Ver. 1. Shore. By this hyperbole, used in Scripture, we are given to understand that the army was greater than could be easily numbered or conceived. W.
--- Philometor had assisted Alexander, with a treacherous design of seizing the kingdom when it should be weakened. H.
--- He had given him his daughter for the same purpose; and now, when Demetrius asserted his claims, he pretended that he would defend his son-in-law, and was thus admitted into all the towns. At Ptolemais he declared his real design, still pretending that Alexander had laid snares for him. While the latter was raising forces in Cilicia, he took Antioch, where he placed two diadems on his head; slew the cruel Ammonius, who had chiefly irritated the people against his master; gave the wife of Alexander to Demetrius; and, in conjunction with him, went to attack Alexander near the river Œnoparas. Here he received some mortal wounds; though Alexander was routed, and soon after slain in Arabia. Livy lii. Usher, A. 3859.
Ver. 4. Way. This was done to irritate him against Jonathas, but he had now something else to do.
AzotusAzotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.
Ver. 7. Eleutherus, about eighty leagues. Some place this river between Tyre and Sidon, but it ran to the north of Libanus. C. xii. 24. Pliny, &c.
Ver. 8. Seleucia. Lit. "of the cities to Seleucia, on the sea shore," (H.) at the mouth of the Orontes, (C.) or Belus. Ptolemy.
Ver. 9. Hath. To what measure will not ambition stoop! These kings made light of adultery; and Cleopatra was still more dissolute, and married a third. H.
Ver. 10. Kill me. Josephus thinks this was true: but it seems only a pretext.
Ver. 13. Antioch. The whole province rebelled on account of the cruelties of Ammonius, who put on women's clothes, but could not escape. Philometor was proclaimed king, yet besought the people to forget the injuries of Soter, and receive his son, as for his part he was content with Egypt. Just. xxxv. Jos. C.
--- Perhaps he saw that the time was not come for his annexing Syria to his dominions, though that was his real and primary intention. H.
AntiochAntioch 1- Of Pisidia. 2- Of Syria.
Ver. 14. Places of Syria, (C.) and the parts adjoining to Cilicia, (H.) which always continued faithful. C.
ArabiaArabia, the desert, which was peopled by various nations. Arab means, "a mixture, or assemblage," as well as "the night, and a fruitless country." Sept. seem to have read abor, "all the kings of the other side" the Euphrates, who were also called Arabs. See C. iv. 24.
Ver. 17. Zabdiel, "God's dowry," or Diocles, "the glory of God," (H.) prince of Arabia. Diod. xxxii.
--- Only five accompanied Alexander. His generals sought to make their peace with his rival, and slew him. Usher.
--- Exalted. Alas! to become the victim of death in the space of a week! H.
Ver. 18. After. He had been mortally wounded in the battle, and remained insensible four days. When the head of Alexander was brought, he came to himself; but died three days after, while the physicians were trepanning him.
--- Camp. The Egyptians loudly complained of this ingratitude of Demetrius. Jos. C.
--- Perhaps he saw through the perfidy of Philometor, who had designed to keep the kingdom. H.
Ver. 20. Castle. Soter's offers had not been accepted. C. x. 22. Jonathan thought himself independent of his son. C.
Ver. 21. Nations, by their actions. They wished to be free from the restraint of the law. H.
--- When pastors seek to extirpate sin, the wicked represented this to princes as dangerous to the state. W.
Ver. 23. Priests. These would testify that what he said in his defence was true. M.
--- Zealous men will not cease to repress wickedness, as God's word is not tied. 2 Tim. ii. W.
Ver. 27. Friends. Gr. "he set him at the head of his first friends," (H.) treating him with the greatest distinction. C.
--- Wise kings will always esteem zealous ministers, knowing that their fidelity to God is an assurance that they will also be faithful to their sovereign. W.
Ver. 28. Governments, (toparchias) or "principalities." These had already been given, and are now enriched with immunities, like the rest of Judea and Samaria. W.
--- The latter was not one of the governments, but they were taken from the country and from Galilee. Jonathas redeems all taxes.
Ver. 31. Parent. Lasthenes had procured his troops, and was made prime minister. But abusing his power, threw his master into many difficulties. C.
Ver. 34. Apherema. This city is specified in Gr. H.
--- Syriac styles it Aphrem: probably a town of Ephraim; (John xi. 54.) perhaps Ephra, where Gedeon was born. Judg. vi. 11.
--- Lyda, or Dospolis. C.
Ver. 35. Of them. He remits only the arrears, (Grot.) or all future claims, which are given up to the priests. H.
--- Pans, or "lakes." Some would substitute (C.) timaV, "dues," but without necessity. H.
--- The lake of Sodom furnished salt of a sharper and more digestive nature than the other. Galien iv. 19. See C. x. 29.
Ver. 38. Nations, particularly Crete. This most pernicious counsel was probably given by Lasthenes. C.
--- All people dislike foreigners to be trusted more than natural born subjects. H.
Ver. 39. Tryphon, styled Diodotus before he mounted the throne. C.
AntiochAntioch 1- Of Pisidia. 2- Of Syria.
Ver. 46. Fight. The king attempted to disarm the citizens of Antioch; but they revolted, and would have slain him in his palace, (Diod. Valesii.) had not the Jews in the country, and those sent by Jonathas, come to his aid. He did not, however, give them a suitable reward. C.
--- Three thousand faithful slew 100,000 infidels; (W.) or the were joined by others who were already in the king's army, (H.) or in the neighbourhood, (C.) as well as by the rest of the foreign troops, though the Jews were the most active and numerous. H.
Ver. 54. Diadem, A. 3860. C.
--- He took the title of Theos Epiphanes, "God appearing;" and that of Nicephorus, "the victorious," when he took Antioch. Diod. Excerp. Vales, p. 346. Vaillant
Ver. 56. Elephants. Lit. "beasts;" qhria. H.
AntiochAntioch 1- Of Pisidia. 2- Of Syria.
Ver. 57. Four. The three specified, (v. 34.) and probably Ptolemais. C. x. 39.
Ver. 58. In gold. Kings alone had or granted this privilege, (C.) as well as to wear purple or a chain of gold, (W.) or buckle. C. xi. 89. H.
Ver. 59. Tyre. Eupator had given only as far as Ptolemais. 2 B. xiii. 24. This Antiochus gave the two brothers, the highest marks of esteem, making them governors of Phenicia and of Palestine.
Ver. 60. River Jordan. He was then joined by the Syrian forces, and established the power of Antiochus as far as Damascus. Then he proceeded by the sea shore, and took Gaza. C.
Ver. 62. Hand, or made peace by this usual ceremony. W.
Ver. 63. Treacherously is not specified in Greek.
--- Cades, a strong city in Galilee.
CadesCades, not far from Mount Hor, on the confines of Idumea, v. 22. and Jud. xi. 16. C. --- Misphat, or of judgment and contradiction, because there the Hebrews contended with Moses and Aaron: it was afterwards called Cadez. Num. xx. 11. --- Cades. The desert of Pharan, or of Cades, is the same. H. --- Sin, or Tsin. Cades is another name of the same desert. Near the city of Cades-barne, the Hebrews encamped a long while, and had plenty of water; but here they murmured for want of it, and Mary departed this life. C. xx. C.
Ver. 67. Asor, near lake Semechon. Jos. xi. 1. Gr. "Nasor," erroneously. C.
--- The n is superfluous. H.
AsorAsor 1- (Josh 11:1, etc.; Nephtali), also Hasor, Heser. Egyptian: Huzar: the site seems to have been in the neighbourhood of L. Hûleh, but its exact location is the object of great discussions. 2- (Josh 15:23; S. Juda). perhaps connected with Jebel Hâdhîreh, N.E. of Cades. 3- (Josh 15:25; S. Juda). 4- (Neh 11:33, Benjamin), poss. Kh. Hazzûr, N. of Jerusalem. --- Asor, the capital of Jabin. C. xi. 1. --- Asor, near lake Semechon. Jos. xi. 1. Gr. "Nasor," erroneously. C.
Ver. 70. Army. Gr. "captains of the army of the forces." H.
--- Only these two captains remained; but there were some soldiers. Josephus says about fifty. Three men would hardly have made a fresh attack. v. 72. W.
--- Yet feats equally incredible have been performed by Samson and by some of the Romans. H.
--- The little band of fifty-three entirely defeated the enemy. C.
--- The two captains and their men alone stood firm.
Ver. 72. Fought. Gr. "fled." M.
--- Three thousand. Josephus says two thousand were slain. Ant. xiii. 9. C.