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AND the Philistines took the ark of God, and carried it from the Stone of help into Azotus.

Ver. 1.  Azotus, one of the principal cities of the Philistines.  It is astonishing that God permits these infidels to touch the ark, He who resented the conduct of Oza, and of the Bethsamites, with such severity.  But the law regarded the Israelites, and the pagans were ignorant of it.  C.


--- The servant, who knows his master will, and does not obey, shall suffer many stripes; and those who have the happiness of professing the true religion, and dishonour it by their immorality, must expect to feel the heavy hand of the judge, much more than ignorant unbelievers.  H.


--- The Philistines could not suppose that they had gained a victory over God, since they knew he might be displeased with the conduct of his people; and they soon began to perceive that they had brought the greatest misfortunes upon themselves.


Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

2 And the Philistines took the ark of God, and brought it into the temple of Dagon, and set it by Dagon.

Ver. 2.  Dagon is the same as Derceto, Atergatis, Venus, and the moon, (C.) and was represented like a woman, (T.) as far as the waist, and a fish below.  H.  Judg. xvi. 23.


--- The ark was placed near the idol, out of respect; (C.) or as a trophy of the victory, which they attributed to Dagon.  M.


--- Thus they hung up the arms of Saul in the temple of Asteroth; (C. xxxi. 10,) and David placed the sword of Goliah in the tabernacle.

3 And when the Azotians arose early the next day, behold Dagon lay upon his face on the ground before the ark of the Lord: and they took Dagon, and set him again in his place.

Ver. 3.  Lord, as if to acknowledge his superiority.  C.


--- No sooner was the gospel preached, than the power of the idols began to decrease.  Bede.  W.

4 And the next day again, when they rose in the morning, they found Dagon lying upon his face on the earth before the ark of the Lord: and the head of Dagon, and both the palms of his hands were cut off upon the threshold:

Ver. 4.  Threshold.  The idol is treated worse the second time.  M.

5 And only the stump of Dagon remained in its place. For this cause neither the priests of Dagon, nor any that go into the temple tread on the threshold of Dagon in Azotus unto this day.

Ver. 5.  The stump of, seems to be wanting in Heb.  H.


--- Only the lower part, which resembled a fish, (Dag) was left on its pedestal.


--- Day.  The Philistines themselves established this custom, which was a tacit confession of the imbecility of the idol, which they nevertheless continued to adore.  The prophet Sophonias, (i. 9,) is supposed to accuse the Jews of imitating this superstition.  The ancient Christians, out of respect, kissed the thresholds of the churches of the apostles and martyrs.  Prudentius in S. Romano.


--- The Persians still refrain from treading on those of certain mosques, which are covered with silver.  Tavernier i. 5.


Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

6 And the hand of the Lord was heavy upon the Azotians, and he destroyed them, and afflicted Azotus and the coasts thereof with emerods. And in the villages and fields in the midst of that country, there came forth a multitude of mice, and there was the confusion of a great mortality in the city.

Ver. 6.  Emerods.  The particular disorder which attacked them, (Ps. lxxvii. 66,) is very uncertain.  Some say it was the dysentery, or the fistula, or the venereal disease, &c.  Eusebius believes that it was in punishment of their incontinency.  It was very painful, and sometimes proved mortal, v. 12.  Aristophanes assures us that the Athenians were punished with a shameful disorder, because they had not received the mysteries of Bacchus with due respect; and they were ordered, by the oracle, to make and carry aloft some obscene figures, before they could obtain a cure.  Acharn. ii. 6.


--- And in, &c.  The remainder of this verse is not found in Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Arabic, &c. nor in many Greek and Latin copies.  But it is conformable to the truth of history, since we read that figures of these animals were placed beside the ark, in memory of this event.  C. vi. 6.


--- Mice, or rats.  Such vermin have often obliged people to abandon their country.  Plin. viii. 28.


--- Bellon. (ii. 78,) testifies that he saw, near Gaza, such multitudes, as to depopulate whole fields; and, if Providence had not caused the birds, called boudres, to destroy them, the people could nav had no harvest.



Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

7 And the men of Azotus seeing this kind of plague, said: The ark of the God of Israel shall not stay with us: for his hand is heavy upon us, and upon Dagon our god.

Ver. 7.  God.  The ark was terrible to this idol, as the relics of S. Babylas were to Apollo.  W.


Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

8 And sending, they gathered together all the lords of the Philistines to them, and said: What shall we do with the ark of the God of Israel? And the Gethrites answered: Let the ark of the God of Israel be carried about. And they carried the ark of the God of Israel about.

Ver. 8.  Lords, next in dignity to a king, like the Persian surena.  Judg. iii. 3. and xvi. 5.


--- About.  Heb. "and they answered, let the carried unto Geth," in which sense the Sept. seem to have taken it.  But the Vulg. is more natural.  Theodoret (q. 10,) concludes, that the people imagined the mortality proceeded from some natural cause; (C.) otherwise it would have been very absurd to give such advice, as the ark would spread the contagion throughout the country, by being removed.  From Geth it was sent to Accaron, when the magistrates of the city objected to its being admitted, v. 10.  Jospehus says, however, that it visited all the five principal cities, as if to punish them for their impiety.  H.

9 And while they were carrying it about, the band of the Lord came upon every city with an exceeding great slaughter: and he smote the men of every city, both small and great, and they had emerods in their secret parts. And the Gethrites consulted together, and made themselves seats of skins.

Ver. 9.  Came upon, to punish, as on other occasions, to protect.  Ezec. i. 3. and xiii. 9.  M.


--- Parts.  Lit. "Their lower intestines coming out, rotted," as v. 6.  H.


--- Heb. "their malady was concealed."  Grot.


--- The emerods attacked them inwardly, with the most excruciating pains, for which they could find no remedy.


--- Skins.  The ancients knew no greater luxury.  Homer, Odys. i. and iii.  The Heb. &c. take no notice of this particular; and there are many other omissions in the Books of Kings, which have been supplied from the Sept.  C.


--- The skins were used instead of breeches, and to hold up the plaster and other medicines.  T.

10 Therefore they sent the ark of God into Accaron. And when the ark of God was come into Accaron, the Accaronites cried out, saying: They have brought the ark of the God of Israel to us, to kill us and our people.


Accaron, the most northern city of the Philistian principalities, (H.) attributed to Juda or Dan, though neither held it for any length of time. Beelzebub was chiefly adored here, 4K. i. 2.

11 They sent therefore and gathered together all the lords of the Philistines: and they said: Send away the ark of the God of Israel, and let it return into its own place, and not kill us and our people. 12 For there was the fear of death in every city, and the hand of God was exceeding heavy. The men also that did not die, were afflicted with the emerods: and the cry of every city went up to heaven.

Ver. 12.  Die, at the sight of the ark, as the Bethsamites did afterwards.  M.

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