Ver. 1. And. Heb. inserts here the conclusion of the last verse, whence some would infer that Samuel told the Israelites to make war upon the Philistines. But as it turned out so ill, this would have tended to discredit him; and we find that the Philistines were the aggressors.
--- Days. this war took place immediately after the threats denounced to Heli; (Sararius) or according to Usher, and the best chronologists, about 27 years after that event. C.
--- The addition of the Sept. seems to insinuate, that the sons of Heli persevered for a long time in their wicked course. C. iii. 20. H.
--- Josephus says that Phinees was his father's coadjutor.
--- Salien observes that this must be considered as a fresh blot in the character of the latter, since he ought to have delivered the delinquents up to execution. Deut. xxi. 21. Tirin, on the contrary, adduces the power of his sons, and the debilitated state of Heli, to excuse his neglect. H.
--- Help. In Heb. Eben-ezer; so called, from the help which the Lord was pleased afterwards to give to his people, Israel, in that place, by the prayers of Samuel, C. vii. 12. (Ch.) about 21 years afterwards.
--- Aphec, in the tribe of Juda, not far from Maspha.
AphecAphec 1- (Josh 12:18; N.W. Juda): poss. Merj-Fikieh (Conder). 2- (Josh 19:30, etc.; Aser). 3- (1Sam 4:1; Benjamin): perhaps Qastûl. 4- (1 Sam 29:1; Issachar): El-'Afûleh, N.W. of Zerâ 'în. 5- (1Ki 20:26, etc.) Assyr.: Apqu: prob. Fîq, E. of the Lake of Tiberias. --- Aphec. A place of this name was in the tribe of Aser, another in that of Juda. --- Aphec, beyond Antilibanus, from which city the Israelites could not drive the Chanaanites. Judg. i. 31. Here the kings of Syria assembled their forces to attack the people of God, 1 K. xx. 26. Profane authors speak of the temple of Venus Aphachitis, who appeared in the eyes of the superstitious to shed tears. The city lay between Biblus and Heliopolis. Zozimus, i. 58. Euseb. (laud. Const.) Macrobius i. 21. --- Aphec, belonging to the tribe of Aser, though it does not appear that they ever obtained possession of it. Jos. xix. 30. A subterraneous fire and earthquake have caused the city to sink; and a lake, nine miles in circumference, now occupies its place. The ruins may still be discerned in its waters. It is about two hours walk from the plains of Balbec, (Paul Lucas. Levant i. 20.) at the foot of Libanus. The waters must be very thick and bituminous, if what is related by the ancients be true; namely, that the presents, offered to the Aphacite goddess, were tried by them, and deemed agreeable to her, if they sunk; as wool would do, while tiles, and often metals, would swim. C. --- Adrichomius places this Aphec on the great plain of Esdrelon, not far from Jezrahel. M
Ver. 2. Here, &c. Heb. "in the field" of battle. C.
--- Sept. "in the ranks, in the field." H.
Ver. 3. Ancients; the commanders of the respective tribes. Heli was not able to lead on the people to battle, on account of his blindness and great age.
--- Enemies. All nations attribute much to the exterior marks of religion. The Israelites had witnessed the victories which had been obtained while the ark was present. Jos. vi. 4. See Num. xiv. 45. But they ought to have considered, that their infidelity rendered them unworthy of the divine protection; and that God was more displeased at their profanations, than at the indignity to which the sacred vessels would be exposed. He would know how to vindicate his own honour and glory. The symbols of religion were thus carried in the army, by the Persians, &c. Herod. vii.
--- The Romans regarded their standards as so many deities. Halicar. vi. See 2 K. vi. 21. 2 Par. xiii. 8. C.
--- The confidence which the Israelites placed in the ark was commendable, but their sins deserved to be punished. W. Num. x. 35.
Ver. 4. Ark. On this extraordinary emergency they thought it lawful. Abulensis, q. 6.
--- They easily obtained the consent of Heli; and his sons went to take it down, and to attend it to the army, as he was incapable of doing duty. We know not what ceremonies were used, nor whether the brothers acted as high priests alternately. C.
--- Cherubim. The Scripture often represents God in this manner. Ex. xxv. 22. Ps. xvii. 10. Ezec. x. 1. The commonality of the Jews attributed bodies to the angels, but to denote that they were not like those with which we are acquainted, they called them cherubim, or complex and unusual figures. C.
Ver. 7. God: "Elohim." Sept. "these gods." They speak of the true God according to their false ideas. C.
--- Sighing. Sept. "deliver us, O Lord, this day."
Ver. 8. Joy. A few days ago the Hebrews were dismayed, now they shout for joy, as they did at the taking of Jericho. Heb. and Sept. "it was not so heretofore." H.
--- Gods. Heb. may be rendered in the singular, with the Chal. and Arab. But the Sept. and most commentators, explain it in the sense of the Vulg. The title of high, (adirim) or magnificent, was given by the Philistines to Dagon, whom they styled Atergatis. C.
--- Sept. sterewn, means, "stable, perfect," &c. H.
--- Plagues, till they were overwhelmed in the Red Sea, which is surrounded with deserts. Some supply, "and (his people) in the desert." Sept. Syr. &c. C.
Ver. 9. Fight. To serve those whom they had lately oppressed, would be doubly afflicting. Salien.
--- If these people had seriously attended to the instructions, which they might have derived from the fall of others, they would surely never have exposed themselves to fight against the high God. But they looked upon him in no other light than their own contemptible idols. Homer often represents them as wounded, and conquered by mortal men.
Ver. 10. Footmen. They had no cavalry, (C.) as God seemed to discourage any. H.
--- Even after Solomon's time, they had not many horsemen. C.
--- The Israelites had before lost 4,000: now when they were full of confidence, and fought with valour, they behold 30,000 fall. The ark proved thus fatal to them. H.
Ver. 11. Slain. Abulensis (q. 17,) thinks they were fighting in defence of the ark, when they might have saved themselves by flight; so that he does not despair of their salvation. God permitted them to lose their lives in the exercise of a holy ministry, which they had so scandalously profaned. C.
Ver. 12. Man. The Jews say that Saul carried these melancholy tidings, and that Goliah slew the sons of Heli. H.
Ver. 13. Stool. Heb. cisse; "a throne or tribunal," where Heli sat to decide any controversies, and where he had blessed the mother of Samuel. C.
--- God. He had great reason to fear that this was the day when his sons would perish, and he apprehended that the ark would be in danger. H.
Ver. 17. Taken. Every sentence expresses something more distressing to the aged judge and father; the flight and slaughter of his people, the ruin of his children, and the loss of the ark, which must have filled all Israel with a mortal gloom and terror, lest God should have abandoned them. So many dismal circumstances oppressing the heart of Heli, he fainted away, and falling backwards, expired. H.
--- The Scripture takes notice of his great age, that we might not think that he killed himself in despair. Salien.
Ver. 18. Named the ark, &c. There is great reason, by all these circumstances, to hope that Heli died in the state of grace; and by his temporal punishments, escaped the eternal. Ch.
--- But many of the Fathers condemn him, and the Scripture says nothing of his conversion, or of that of his children, so that the matter is doubtful. C.
--- Years. Heb. "and heavy."
--- Forty. Sept. "twenty," in which they are followed by many Fathers. Euseb. Sulpit. &c.
--- Some reconcile the two texts by saying, that Heli and Samson judged together for twenty years. But the Sept. is probably corrupted, as the other versions agree with the original. C.
Ver. 19. Sudden, through extreme affliction. M.
--- Josephus says the child was only in his seventh month, but alive. Abulensis thinks he did not long survive his mother.
Ver. 21. Ichabod. That is, Where is the glory? or, there is no glory. We see how much the Israelites lamented the loss of the ark, which was but the symbol of God's presence amongst them. How much more ought Christians lament the loss of God himself, when by sin they have drove him out of their souls? Ch.
--- The ark is often called the glory of Israel. Isai. lxiv. 21. Ps. xxv. 8. Ichabod might remind the people that the greatest loss had been sustained by them, as well as by his family. His mother had both in view the ark, Heli, and Phinees, her husband, (H.) when she exclaimed, ichabod, "Woe! or, Alas! the glory." Mendoza.
--- The Scripture does not mention Ophni's posterity. But besides this posthumous son, Phinees had one elder, who now succeeded Heli in the pontificate, (C. xiv. 3. Josephus. Salien, A. 2940, A.C. 1113,) while Samuel took possession of the civil administration, and almost totally eclipsed the glory of Achitob. Many of the Fathers have even looked upon him as the high priest. But he was only a Levite, though, by dispensation, he acted sometimes as an extraordinary priest. S. Jerom c. Jov. i. and in 1 Cor. He reduced the people to a sense of their duty, and taught them to trust in the true God alone, and they would be protected, though deprived of the ark. This was also presently restored to them. H.