Ver. 1. Jonathan. He was most interested, as David might be feared as a competitor; (M.) and, under the cloak of friendship, he might more easily destroy him. Saul was a stranger to the generous sentiments of his son, or he would never have made the proposal. H.
--- Grotius compares him with Germanicus. C.
Ver. 2. Morning. Sept. add, "to-morrow." M.
Ver. 3. Field. Saul would come thither, or Jonathan would sound his father's disposition, and give David information in the place appointed. C.
Ver. 6. Slain. His inconstant temper might cause him to be moved with the expostulation of his son; but he presently relapsed, if he were ever sincere. C.
--- The Scripture seems to insinuate that he was. M.
Ver. 9. Saul. His jealousy was again enkindled by the success of David. C.
--- Hand, on music, to assuage the paroxysms o the king's fury. H.
Ver. 11. Morning, fearing lest they might miss him in the night, (Salien) and perhaps desiring to see his execution, after he had been tried. Joseph.
--- The Philistines would not attack Samson at night. See Judg. xvi. 2. Ex. xiv. 20. The Parthians and Mahometans will do nothing at that time; moved perhaps by some superstitious notion. C.
Ver. 13. Image. Heb. Teraphim. Aquila, "figures." Sym. "idols." Some believe that David had idols in his house, as ornaments, or to treat them with ignominy. Mercer.
--- But others cannot persuade themselves that he would keep such dangerous things. What Michol took, might therefore be some sacred representation, or a statue of some great man. Genebrard. (Kimchi. Maim.) Or it might be some piece of wood, or clothes folded up, so as to make the guards believe that David was in bed. Bochart, Anim. i. 2. 51. See Gen. xxxi. 19. C.
--- They would not examine very narrowly. H.
--- The Taraphim denote both idolatrous and sacred things. Ose. iii. 4. M.
--- Skin. Vat. and Alex. Sept. "liver," still warm and in motion. T.
--- But they have followed a false reading, as well as Josephus and Aquila. C.
--- Some have inferred that the hair of goats in that country is reddish, because it was designed to resemble David's hair, of the same colour. T.
--- This is, however, uncertain. The skin might form his pillow or coverlet. C.
Ver. 14. Sick. This is an officious lie. She tells another to excuse herself, v. 17. The children of Saul strive to prevent their father's cruelty, by taking part with the innocent David. H.
--- It is thought that David composed the 68th Psalm, Eripe, &c. on this occasion. C.
Ver. 19. Najoth. It was probably a school or college or prophets, in or near Ramatha, under the direction of Samuel. Ch.
--- Chal. "in the house of doctrine." See C. x. 5. M.
Ver. 20. Prophesying. That is, singing praises to God by a divine impulse. God was pleased on this occasion that both Saul's messengers and himself should experience the like impulse, that he might understand, by this instance of the divine power, how vain are the designs of man against him whom God protects. Ch.
--- The messengers did not return. M.
--- They were seized by the spirit only when they arrived at Najoth. But Saul felt the impression even at Socho, threw aside his garments, and began to act and to speak as one inspired. C.
Ver. 24. Naked. Divested of his regal ornaments, (T.) though not in an indecent posture. People are said to be undressed, when they have not such clothes on as might be expected. Hesiod and Virgil say, Nudus ara, sere nudus; hiems ignava colono. "Plough and sow naked; choose a fine season for work, and rest in winter." H. See Mic. i. 8. 2 K. vi. 20.
--- Yet some assert (C.) that Saul was entirely undressed, as some pretended prophets and slaves go in the hot countries. Isai. xx. 1. We are not to judge of the indecency of such behaviour from our own manners. Some copies read cecinit, (C.) and the Douay Bible has "and sang naked." H.
--- Saul had not the gift of prophecy, like holy men, but only like Balaam's ass, for a time. S. Aug. ad Simp. ii. 1. W.
--- Prophets. This is something wonderful. M.
--- The proverb was now confirmed. C. x. 11. C.