Ver. 1. Edom. His genealogy extends as far as v. 20, where that of Seir, the Horrite, begins. The seven first verses specify Esau's sons, the twelve next his grandsons born in Seir. From the 15th to the 20th verse, we have the most ancient form of government in that nation under the Aluphim, or heads of families. To them succeed kings, (v. 31 to 40,) and then dukes to the end. Moses omits several generations of Oolibama's grand-children, as foreign to his purpose, which was to shew the Israelites whom they were not to molest. The kings, of whom he speaks, (v. 31,) might govern different parts of the country at the same time; and that before any form of government was established among the Hebrews, as it was under Moses, who is styled a king, (Deut. xxxiii. 5,) about 200 years after Esau had driven the Horrites from their mountains. C.
--- Among these nations several good men might exist, as Job, &c. But the true religion was preserved more fully among the 12 tribes. S. Aug. de C. D. xv. xvi. W.
Ver. 2. Ada. These wives of Esau are called by other names, Gen. xxvi. But it was very common amongst the ancients for the same persons to have two names, as Esau himself was also called Edom. Ch.
--- Ana, the daughter of Sebeon. It is not certain that Ana was a woman. The Sam. and Sept. make him son of Sebeon, both here and v. 14, (H.) as well as some Latin copies; and he is mentioned as such, v. 24. The daughter of Sebeon may, therefore, designate his grand-daughter, which is not unusual. Sebeon is called Hevite, Hethite, and Horrite, on account of his dwelling in different countries; though some think they were different persons. C.
--- This, and innumerable other difficulties, may convince Protestants that the Scriptures are not easy. W.
Ver. 4. Eliphaz; perphas the Themanite, and friend of Job, (S. Jer.) or his grandfather, by Theman; as Job was the grandson of Esau, and the second king, v. 33. T.
Ver. 6. Jacob, by the divine Providence, as Chanaan was to be his inheritance. M.
--- He had returned from Seir about the same time as Jacob came home. S. Aug. q. 119.
Ver. 9. Of Edom, or of all the nations who inhabited Idumea, sprung from Esau's grand-children. C.
Ver. 15. Heb. Aluph, prince of a tribe, or of a thousand; a Chiliarch. Zach. v. 2. The Rabbin assert they wore not a crown, as the kings did. C.
--- Both obtained their authority by election. An aristocracy prevailed under the dukes. M.
Ver. 16. Duke Core, being the son of Esau, is omitted in the Sam. though found in all the versions and Heb. Ken.
Ver. 24. Hot waters. Medicinal, (M.) like the springs at Bath, &c. H.
--- Heb. hayemim, a word which some translate mules; others, the nation of that name; or the giants, Emeans, with whom he had perhaps some engagement, as Adad (v. 35,) had with the Madianites, the particulars of which were then well known. The Sept. and ancient versions retain the original word. It is used for a body of water. C.
Ver. 31. A king. See v. 1. Moses might also add this with reference to the times, when he knew the Hebrews would petition for a king, for whom he gave particular laws. M.
--- These kings were probably foreigners, who subdued the natives. They did not obtain the kingdom by succession. C.
Ver. 33. Jobab. Most people suppose this is Job, the model of patience. M.
--- Bosra, or Bezer, was the capital of Idumea, in the tribe of Ruben. C.
BosraBosra, 1 (Isa 63:1; Edom): Buseireh, S. of the Dead Sea. — 2 (Josh 21:27), mistranslation for Astaroth. — 3 (Jer 48:24): Bosor, 1. --- Bosra, or Bezer, was the capital of Idumea, in the tribe of Ruben. C.
AvithAvith (Gen 36:35; Edom), perhaps in the neighbourhood of the Jebel el-Ghuweiteh, E. of the Dead Sea.
Ver. 37. River Rohoboth; or as it is expressed, 1 Par. i. 48, of Rohoboth, which is near the river Euphrates, below where the Chaboras empties itself.
Ver. 39. Adar. Many confound him with the king, whom David overcame.
--- Daughter of Mezaab, or perhaps her grand-daughter, or adopted child.
Ver. 40. Callings. They left their names to various places. They were in power when the Hebrews approached their respective territories, and threw them into dismay. Ex. xv. 15.
--- Alva. Sept. gola. C.
Ver. 43. The same Edom is Esau. Moses seems particularly attentive to assert both titles for the same person, v. 8, &c. The time of Esau's death cannot be ascertained. There is reason to hope that he died penitent; though in the early part of his life, he gave way to his ferocious temper, and became a figure of the reprobate. He lived on terms of friendship with his brother, assisted him to bury his father, &c. C.
--- He was a hunter, indeed; which S. Jerom looks upon as a bad sign: "nunquam venatorem in bonam partem legi," in Mic. v. But this was also in his younger days. H.
--- I have hated Esau, Matt. i. refers to his irreligious posterity, and to his being deprived of temporal advantages, attending the birth-right. T. C.