Ver. 1. Year of the prophet's captivity. H.
--- He still dates from the transmigration of Joachin. C. i. &c. W.
--- Some think he speaks of the first, fourth, or fifth month. Tyre was not besieged till after the ninth day of the fourth month, when Jerusalem was taken; nor could she express her joy for that event before, unless God allude to her dispositions, &c. C. xxv. 1. C.
Ver. 2. Gates: places of resort and commerce. The Jews came to Jerusalem frequently from all parts, which increased her beauty and trade. New Tyre expects that more will come to her.
Ver. 3. Up. Nabuchodonosor besieged the city for thirteen years. The profane historians read by S. Jerom took no notice of this; but Josephus quotes several. An. x. 11. and c. Ap. i. C.
Ver. 4. Dust. She shall be demolished, and the rubbish thrown into the sea, to make a road by which New Tyre in the island might be attacked. v. 12. H.
Ver. 5. Sea. S. Jerom explains this of New Tyre; Marsham of the Old. To reconcile the different texts, we only need to suppose that both cities were connected by a road thrown up in the sea by Hiram, and repaired by Nabuchodonosor with great labour, (C. xxix. 18.) after it had been destroyed by the inhabitants of New Tyre, when they saw the old city on the continent fall a prey. S. Jer. C.
Ver. 7. Kings: Nabuchodonosor (4 K. xxv. 28.) or Alexander, who took Tyre. M.
Ver. 8. Daughters. Many towns were subject to Tyre: almost all Phœnicia acknowledged her dominion, as well as (C.) the seas to which her fleets went. v. 15. Selden. Mare i. 6. Curt. iv.
--- These smaller cities shall fall, and the town shall be of no service except to dry nets. W.
Ver. 9. Engines. Lit. "vine." H.
--- A covert was thus made for the soldiers, (Veget. iv. 15.) when they approached the walls. M.
Ver. 10. Destroyed. Old Tyre was taken by storm. It is doubtful whether it was pillaged. C. xxix. 18. C.
Ver. 11. Statues. The citizens chained the golden statue of Apollo to the altar of Hercules, for fear of its leaving them, when Alexander attacked the town. Curt. iv.
--- Hiram placed a pillar of gold in the temple of Hercules. Jos. C. Ap. i.
--- Herodotus (ii. 44.) saw another also of emerald stone, (smaragdon) which illuminated the temple in the night. On such the Tyrian might depend; though some render, "the substance or guard of thy strength," denoting the soldiers (C.) and towers. H.
--- The gods were treated like the people, and their precious ornaments plundered.
Ver. 14. More, for seventy years. Is. xxiii. 15. The people returned at the same time as the Jews. A. 3468. Soon after, Zacharias (C. ix.) speaks of Tyre as then subsisting. It was very strong in Alexander's time, (who took it with difficulty, as Antigonus did eighteen years later) and had a very extensive commerce when S. Jerom wrote. But all this must be understood of New Tyre. The old city never regained much splendour. C.
--- It is still in ruins. A modern traveller was struck with the completion of this prophecy, beholding a few miserable fishermen drying their nets on the spot!
Ver. 16. Sea: colonies, or tributary to Tyre. v. 8. H.
--- Leptis, Utica, Carthage,and Cadiz, were founded by Tyrians. Pliny v. 19.
--- Some pretend that these cities were attacked by the conquerors, for manifesting their grief. See Jos. Ant. x. Pineda, &c.
--- But we shall not here follow conjectures.
--- Astonishment. Heb. "troubles," or mourning. C.
Ver. 17. Dwellest in. Heb. "of the seas." Prot. "seafaring men," (H.) being near the sea, or thence deriving thy riches.
Ver. 18. Because. Heb. "at thy departure." C.
--- Sept. "into captivity." S. Jer.
Ver. 19. Waters; great armies, (v. 3.) or when thou art in the regions below. Job xxvi. 5. C.
--- Tyre was humbled for her pride, but restored after seventy years. Is. xxiii. Our Saviour retired into those parts. Mat. xv. 21. W.
Ver. 20. Everlasting: in the grave, till the day of judgment. Ps. xlviii. 12. Wisd. xii. 5.
--- Living, assigned to Israel, (C. xxxii. 24. C.) where holy people adore the true God, and shall rise to life eternal. M.
Ver. 21. For ever: for a long time, (Theod.) not at all in thy ancient glory. H.
--- The city subsisted after the days of Nabuchodonosor and of Alexander. C. v. 14.
--- But the ancient city was reduced to a mere nothing. H.