Ver. 1. You, Aaron, &c. The people had heard the voice of the Lord, as it were the sound of thunder, giving the foregoing commands; which Moses explains to them distinctly (v. 3,) by the mouth of Aaron; and afterwards draws up a memorial of their solemn ratification. H.
Ver. 4. Titles. That is, pillars; (Ch.) or altars, round that made of turf; (C. xx. 24); which represented God. Part of the blood was poured upon this altar, and the rest upon the Hebrews, to remind them, that if they proved rebellious, their blood should be spilt. C.
Ver. 5. Holocausts: whole burnt-offerings: in which the whole sacrifice was consumed with fire, upon the altar. Ch.
--- It is not said that these young men were to officiate as priests. Moses acted alone in this capacity, pouring the blood.
--- Calves, and he-goats also. Heb. ix. 19. The book was also sprinkled with the blood (C.) mixed with water; for which purpose scarlet wool and hyssop were employed, as S. Paul learnt from tradition, or by inspiration. H.
Ver. 8. Covenant. Thus Christ confirmed the new covenant, by the effusion of his blood. T.
--- This is daily renewed upon our altars for ever. C.
--- Our Saviour alludes to this transaction in the consecration of the chalice. D.
--- If wine alone had been substituted instead of blood, the figure would have surpassed the reality. Isichius. W.
Ver. 11. Saw God, under the appearance of a burning fire, v. 17. They beheld some rays of his glory, but not distinct similitude, (Deut. iv. 15,) though Cajetan thinks that God appeared in a human form. C.
--- Drink. They made a feast of thanksgiving for so great a favour, and for the preservation of their lives, after beholding such a glorious apparation. Vat.
Ver. 14. Wait ye. They returned soon to the camp; and the people not perceiving Moses with them, and supposing he was dead, made the golden calf.
Ver. 16. Called him, to come up still higher, while Josue remained there.
Ver. 18. Forty, including the six mentioned before, v. 16. The Rabbins pretend that Moses received the written law during the days, and their traditions during the nights. R. Bechai ap. Buxt. syn. 1. C.