Ver. 1. Canticle. Origen reckons this to be the most ancient piece of poetry. It is truly sublime, and calculated to fill the souls of those, who say their late cruel masters, now prostrate at their feet in death, with sentiments of the greatest gratitude and piety towards their almighty benefactor. H.
--- God miraculously gave utterance to the dumb on this occasion, (Widsom x. 21.) and taught the whole congregation of Israel to join in harmonious concert. (De Mirab. S. S. inter. op. S. Aug.) This mode of perpetuating the memory of past benefits by canticles, is very common in Scripture. C.
--- Let us sing. So the Sept. The Heb. has "I will sing...for he hath triumphed gloriously." This canticle was composed by Moses, about 1491 years B.C. H.
Ver. 2. Praise. The printed Heb. is here irregular, but some MSS. agree with the Vulg. Chal. and Arab. Ken. i. p. 400.
--- To him my praise is due on all titles. H.
--- God. Hebrew el, "the strong one." M.
Ver. 3. The Lord. Sept. "breaking wars in pieces," a man of war, a conqueror. C.
--- Almighty. Jehova, I am. This is the most awful and incommunicable name. H.
Ver. 4. Captains. Lit. Princes. Heb. shalishim, chiefs. The three great officers. C. xiv. 7. We find three were entrusted with the highest power in the empire of Chaldea, (Ezec. xxiii. 15. Dan. v. 7.) as well as at the court of David. 2 K. xxiii. 8. 1 Par. xi. 10. Hadino, Eleazar, and Semma, had various other princes under them. C.
Ver. 7. Wrath. A tempest of lightning. See Isai. lxiii. 11. Habac. iii. 15.
Ver. 8. Together. "Congealed on either side," as the Chal. and Sept. express it. C.
Ver. 9. Enemy. Miracles make but small impression upon the wicked. They pursue their schemes of destruction, which end in their own ruin!
--- Slay. Heb. "despoil." Sept. "bring them into subjection." H.
Ver. 10. Wind. Sept. "spirit," which S. Amb. and S. Aug. understand as the Holy Ghost. C.
Ver. 11. Who...Lord. The initials of these four Hebrew letters, which the Maccabees placed on their banners, (m c b i) probably gave that title to those stout heroes, who rose up in defence of their religion. H.
--- Strong, may be applied either to men, or to the pretended gods of the Gentiles, which seems to agree best with the sequel. Sept. "among the gods...wonderful in praises."
--- Terrible and. Heb. "terrible to praise," requiring that we should perform that duty with awe. C.
Ver. 12. Earth. When their carcasses were corrupted, such as were not eaten by fishes, mixed with the earth at the bottom, or on the shore of the sea.
Ver. 13. Hast been. This is a prophecy of what should happen to the Hebrews till they should be put in quiet possession of Chanaan, (C.) of which they had an earnest, in the protection which they had already experienced. H.
--- Holy, on account of the temple, and of the patriarchs, and Jesus Christ, who dwelt there. M.
Ver. 15. Stiff, with consternation. See Jos. ix. 9. The nations of Chanaan found auxiliaries even among the near relations of the Hebrews, the children of Esau, (who were not governed by princes, Alphim, as Gen. xxxvi.) and of Lot. We easily forget our relations, when our interest is at stake! Heb. instead of being stiff, says, they "melted away." Both words insinuate, that their heart was under such a violent struggle, that they could perform no duty.
Ver. 16. In the, &c. When they shall behold thy wonders, wrought in our defence.
--- Let them cease to make opposition. Heb. "let them be silent as a stone." H.
Ver. 17. Mountain. Chanaan was very mountainous, and different from Egypt. C.
--- Sion was the peculiar mountain of God, consecrated to his worship. M.
Ver. 18. And ever. Lit. et ultra, "and beyond;" holam, which denotes a long duration, is often used to mean a time that will have an end. To add the greater emphasis to it, the latter term is sometimes used when eternity is meant. The Sept. "The Lord shall reign over this generation, or age of the Mosaic law, and over an age lasting from Christ to the end, and still." His kingdom shall extend over all eternity. C.
Ver. 19. For, &c. He is not tired with repeating this wonderful judgment, which gave him reason to hope that God would complete his work; and at the same time, give a sanction to his mission. If the most potent of the monarchs of the earth could so little withstand his power, what had he to fear from a few jarring clans of barbarians and shepherds? H.
Ver. 20. Mary, or Mariam, as it was formerly pronounced, though the Masorets now read Miriam: may signify one "exalted, lady, star, bitterness of the sea."
--- Prophetess; having revelations from God, (Num. xii. 1,) and singing his praises.
--- Of Aaron. Moses passes over himself out of modesty. She is known by this title, whence it is supposed she never married. S. Amb. C.
--- Timbrels, which were already used in solemn worship.
--- And dances. Choris may mean companies of women, singing and dancing in honour of God. The men repeated what Moses had entoned, and the women did the same after Mary; unless, perhaps, the multitude of both sexes, respectively, repeated only the first verse by way of chorus; or Mary and her band took up each verse "in answer" to the men, as the Heb. insinuates. This divine canticle will afford joy even to the elect. Apoc. xv. 3.
Ver. 22. Sur, which is called Etham, "Pough," (Num. xxxiii. 7,) on which account both sides of the Red Sea are described by the same name; hence some have groundlessly asserted that the Hebrews came out of the Red Sea by the same way they entered it. H.
Ver. 23. Mara, about halfway between Suez and M. Sinai. The waters are said to be still potable, though of a disagreeable nitrous taste. C.
Ver. 25. A tree; (lignum) or piece of wood, which had the natural property here ascribed to it. Eccli. xxxviii. 4. C.
--- Though we can hardly suppose, that all the collection of waters would be thus rendered sweet, unless God had given it a miraculous efficacy. H.
--- It foreshewed the virtue of the cross. Theodoret ix. 26.
--- Him, Moses, and the people of Israel, of which he was now the sole head or king. H.
--- God proved on this occasion the disposition of the Hebrews to enter into the alliance, of which he proposes to them the heads, v. seq. Josue xxiv. 25, makes use of nearly the same words. God begins to take upon himself the administration of the republic, appointing the forms of judicature. Jer. vii. 22. What regarded sacrifices, was given upon occasion of their idolatry. D.
Ver. 26. Healer. God delivered his people from every infirmity, which might prevent any one from joining the rest of their tribes on the night of the exit. Ps. civ. 37.
Ver. 27. Elim, to the north-west of Sinai. Shaw says there are now only nine fountains. H.
--- Strabo mentions a place of this description, five days' journey from Jericho, which was consecrated to the gods. B. xvi. p. 511. C.
--- We might here, (at the conclusion of the third age, according to those who call the deluge the first, and Abraham's call, the second,) pause, with Dr. Worthington, to take a view of the progress of the Church, and of the true doctrine, which has at all times been believed. But the attentive reader of the sacred text, and of these notes, will find this to his hand almost every page. Meditate upon these things...Take heed to thyself and to doctrine, be earnest in them. 1 Tim. iv. 15. The holy Job probably lived about this time, so that his book may serve to corroborate those truths, which were the objects of faith to some good men living among the Gentiles, as well as to the more favoured nation of the Jews. H.