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THEN Nathan the prophet arose in the days of David.

Ver. 1.  Nathan.  Many other prophets lived at the same time.  But he was most conspicuous, and crowned Solomon.  C.


--- Gr. "and after him Nathan arose to prophesy," (H.) and keep up the succession.


2 And as the fat taken away from the flesh, so was David chosen from among the children of Israel.

Ver. 2.  Flesh.  Gr. "peace-offering."  The fat was deemed most delicate.

3 He played with lions as with lambs: and with bears he did in like manner as with the lambs of the flock, in his youth.

Ver. 3.  Played.  Tearing them to  pieces with the greatest ease.  1 K. xvii. 34.  C.


4 Did not he kill the giant, and take away reproach from his people?


5 In lifting up his hand, with the stone in the sling he beat down the boasting of Goliath: 6 For he called upon the Lord the Almighty, and he gave strength in his right hand, to take away the mighty warrior, and to set up the horn of his nation.

Ver. 6.  Nation.  Who were no longer under the control of the Philistines.  H.

7 So in ten thousand did he glorify him, and praised him in the blessings of the Lord, in offering to him a crown of glory:

Ver. 7.  Thousand.  This was sung in the cities, (1 K. xviii. 7.  C.) and excited the envy of Saul, who nevertheless could not prevent David's exaltation.  H.


--- Did he, or the people who praised the Lord and David.  C.


8 For he destroyed the enemies on every side, and extirpated the Philistines the adversaries unto this day: he broke their horn for ever.

Ver. 8.  Horn.  Power and glory.  H.


--- For ever, is not in Gr.  David defeated the Philistines at the beginning of his reign.  C.

9 In all his works he gave thanks to the holy one, and to the most High, with words of glory.

Ver. 9.  Glory.  Contained in the Psalms.  H.


--- He was always very grateful.  C.


--- His pure and sincere heart pleased God more than his other works.  W.

10 With his whole heart he praised the Lord, and loved God that made him: and he gave him power against his enemies:


11 And he set singers before the altar, and by their voices he made sweet melody.

Ver. 11.  Altar.  Of holocausts.  Moses had not appointed singing.

12 And to the festivals he added beauty, and set in order the solemn times even to the end of his life, that they should praise the holy name of the Lord, and magnify the holiness of God in the morning.

Ver. 12.  Set.  Lit. "adorned the times."


--- Of his.  Gr. "while they praised his holy name, and sounded forth holiness early."  H.


--- David strove to give all perfection to the sacred ceremonies of religion, that the people might be attracted to the tabernacle, (C.) and serve the Lord with gladness.  H.

13 The Lord took away his sins, and exalted his horn for ever: and he gave him a covenant of the kingdom, and a throne of glory in Israel.

Ver. 13.  Sins.  Remitting the punishment, (2 K. xii. 13.  C.) and the guilt also, (H.) in consequence of his repentance.


--- Covenant.  Engaging that his posterity should enjoy the throne (2 K. vii. 12.  C.) if they continued faithful.  Ps. cxxxi. 11.  sup.c. xlv. 31.


14 After him arose up a wise son, and for his sake he cast down all the power of the enemies.

Ver. 14.  Enemies.  The piety of David was thus rewarded.  H.


--- It must have been the greatest satisfaction to him, to see so wise a son on the throne, and all in perfect peace.  3 K. i. 48. and iv. 24.  C.


--- These blessings were a reward of his virtue.  W.

15 Solomon reigned in days of peace, and God brought all his enemies under him, that he might build a house in his name, and prepare a sanctuary for ever: O how wise wast thou in thy youth!

Ver. 15.  Youth.  When other are less informed.  This serves to place the apostacy of Solomon in a more striking light.  C.


--- The author seems astonished both at the wisdom and at the folly of this prince, (H.) and apostrophises him.  W.


16 And thou wast filled as a river with wisdom, and thy soul covered the earth.

Ver. 16.  Earth.  Or explored all the secrets of nature, retexit.  3 K. iv. 29.


17 And thou didst multiply riddles in parables: thy name went abroad to the islands far off, and thou wast beloved in thy peace. 18 The countries wondered at thee for thy canticles, and proverbs, and parables, and interpretations,

Ver. 18.  Interpretations of riddles.  Hence people praised the Lord.  3 K. x. 24.

19 And at the name of the Lord God, whose surname is, God of Israel. 20 Thou didst gather gold as copper, and didst multiply silver as lead,

Ver. 20.  Copper, (aurichalcum.)  Gr. "tin."  2 Par. ix. 13.


21 And thou didst bow thyself to women: and by thy body thou wast brought under subjection.

Ver. 21.  Thyself.  Lit. "thy thighs."  Gr. "sides."  Syr. "strength."


--- Subjection.  Lit. "thou hadst power over thy body," (H.) using it as if it belonged not to God.  He was guilty of excess in marrying a thousand wives, and yielding to idolatry, (C.) fearing to displease those whom he loved to his own ruin."  S. Aug. de Gen. ad lit. xi. 42.


--- Dreadful infatuation!  H.


22 Thou hast stained thy glory, and defiled thy seed so as to bring wrath upon thy children, and to have thy folly kindled,

Ver. 22.  Defiled.  Consecrating some even to Moloch, (Pineda vii. 11.) or having children by those whom the law prohibited.  Deut. vii. 2. and xxiii. 2.  C.


--- His sins were punished: yet God's mercy preserved his posterity.  W.  Ps. lxxxviii.

23 That thou shouldst make the kingdom to be divided, and out of Ephraim a rebellious kingdom to rule.

Ver. 23.  Rebellious.  (Gr.) Lit. "hard."  H.


--- Jeroboam was at the head of it.  3 K. xii. 14.  C.


24 But God will not leave off his mercy, and he will not destroy, nor abolish his own works, neither will he cut up by the roots the offspring of his elect: and he will not utterly take away the seed of him that loveth the Lord.

Ver. 24.  Lord.  David's piety caused the sceptre to be still preserved in his family, (H.) though Solomon's conduct deserved to lose it.  C.

25 Wherefore he gave a remnant to Jacob, and to David of the same stock.

Ver. 25.  Of the.  Gr. "a root from him," to govern a part, while Jeroboam reigned over the other tribes of Jacob.  H.


--- God fulfilled his promises to Jacob and David.  M.

26 And Solomon had an end with his fathers.

Ver. 26.  Fathers.  Some would hence infer, that Solomon died penitent.  H.

27 And he left behind him of his seed, the folly of the nation,

Ver. 27.  Folly.  A most imprudent prince, despised by the whole nation.  He answered the people roughly, and lost the ten tribes; but idolatry was his greatest folly, and from this he was never reclaimed.  3 K. xiv. 22.  C.

28 Even Roboam that had little wisdom, who turned away the people through his counsel: 29 And Jeroboam the son of Nabat, who caused Israel to sin, and shewed Ephraim the way of sin, and their sins were multiplied exceedingly.

Ver. 29.  Jeroboam.  Though not of his seed, as we only find Roboam mentioned of all the thousand wives of Solomon.  He left behind him Jeroboam, notwithstanding his desire to have him slain; and this man brought ruin on the nation.  H.


--- Sin.  This is the usual title given to this introducer of idolatry.  He engaged the ten tribes in the worship of the golden calves, which ruined the state and religion of Israel.


30 They removed them far away from their land. 31 And they sought out all iniquities, till vengeance came upon them, and put an end to all their sins.

Ver. 31.  Vengeance, (defensio) and put, &c. in not in Gr.  Theglatphalasar and Salmanasar carried the tribes away into captivity.  1 Par. v. 26. and 4 K. xiv. xvii. 6.  C.


--- Many hereupon opened their eyes, (M.) as we may hope.  Those who returned with the rest of the Jews relapsed not, at least into idolatry, in such an open manner.  H.

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