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THE labour is created for all men, and a heavy yoke is upon the children of Adam, from the day of their coming out of their mother's womb, until the day of their burial into the mother of all.

Ver. 1.  Labour, "anxiety," ascolia.  M.


--- All misery (C.) is in consequence of original sin.  W.


--- The life of man is a trial.  Job vii. 1. and xiv. 1.


--- Of all.  The earth, (C.) which covers us, when all other things cast us away.  Pliny ii. 63.


2 Their thoughts, and fears of the heart, their imagination of things to come, and the day of their end: 3 From him that sitteth on a glorious throne, unto him that is humbled in earth and ashes: 4 From him that weareth purple, and beareth the crown, even to him that is covered with rough linen: wrath, envy, trouble, unquietness, and the fear of death, continual anger, and strife,

Ver. 4.  Purple.  Lit. "hyacinth," (H.) or violet colour.  Purple was more like scarlet.

5 And in the time of rest upon his bed, the sleep of the night changeth his knowledge.

Ver. 5.  Knowledge.  He is disquieted by restless (C.) and frightful dreams.  v. 6.  H.

6 A little and as nothing is his rest, and afterward in sleep, as in the day of keeping watch. 7 He is troubled in the vision of his heart, as if he had escaped in the day of battle. In the time of his safety he rose up, and wondereth that there is no fear:

Ver. 7.  Fear, or no reason for it.  C.

8 Such things happen to all flesh, from man even to beast, and upon sinners are sevenfold more.

Ver. 8.  Beast.  Their instinct causes them to fear death, to fight, &c.

9 Moreover, death, and bloodshed, strife, and sword, oppressions, famine, and affliction, and scourges:

Ver. 9.  Moreover.  Gr. "death," &c. are all destined for the wicked.


10 All these things are created for the wicked, and for their sakes came the flood.


11 All things that are of the earth, shall return to the earth again, and all waters shall return to the sea.


12 All bribery, and injustice shall blotted out, and fidelity shall stand for ever.

Ver. 12.  Out, and severely punished.  C.


--- They shall not appear in the book of life.

13 The riches of the unjust shall be dried up like a river, and shall pass away with a noise like a great thunder in rain. 14 While he openeth his hands he shall rejoice: but transgressors shall pine away in the end.

Ver. 14.  Rejoice.  The corrupt judge once rejoiced: but now he shall mourn.  H.


--- The possessions and grandeur of the unjust shall end in a moment, like a clap of thunder.  Ps. xxxvi. 36.  Prov. x. 25.  C.

15 The offspring of the ungodly shall not bring forth many branches, and make a noise as unclean roots upon the top of a rock.

Ver. 15.  And make.  Gr. "they are unclean," (H.) and will produce no fruit.

16 The weed growing over every water, and at the bank of the river, shall be pulled up before all grass.

Ver. 16.  Weed.  Lit. "verdure."  Gr. Achei, (H.) properly denotes the rush, papyrus, which grows on the banks of the Nile, (Gen. xli. 2.  C.) and was used for fuel.  Alpin. i. 7.  Matt. vi. 30.


--- Thus the wicked will presently (C.) be treated.  M.

17 Grace is like a paradise in blessings, and mercy remaineth for ever.

Ver. 17.  Grace.  The beneficent will produce fruits, like those of paradise.  Gen. ii. 8.

18 The life of a labourer that is content with what he hath, shall be sweet, and in it thou shalt find a treasure.

Ver. 18.  That is.  Gr. "and of one that."


--- In it.  Gr. "and more than both is one discovering a treasure," (H.) who finds himself rich, without labour or injustice.

19 Children, and the building of a city shall establish a name, but a blameless wife shall be counted above them both.

Ver. 19.  Both.  Thus Judith, Zenobia, &c. ennobled their husbands.  Prov. xxxi. 10.

20 Wine and music rejoice the heart, but the love of wisdom is above them both.

Ver. 20.  Wisdom.  Virtue gives more content to the soul than corporal pleasures do to the body.  It brings us near to God.  C.

21 The flute and the psaltery make a sweet melody, but a pleasant tongue is above them both. 22 Thy eye desireth favour and beauty, but more than these green sown fields.

Ver. 22.  Green.  "The sight of no colour is more agreeable to the eyes."  Pliny xxxvii. 1.


--- The Church is more excellent than the synagogue.  W.

23 A friend and companion meeting together in season, but above them both is a wife with her husband.

Ver. 23.  Husband.  Their union is closer, and they can best assist each other.

24 Brethren are a help in the time of trouble, but mercy shall deliver more than they.
25 Gold and silver make the feet stand sure: but wise counsel is above them both.

Ver. 25.  Counsel.  By this the Romans conquered the world.  1 Mac. viii. 31.  Prov. xi. 14.

26 Riches and strength lift up the heart: but above these is the fear of the Lord.

Ver. 26.  Heart, and make people presumptuous; while piety gives real courage.  Ps. xxvi. 1.  C.

27 There is no want in the fear of the Lord, and it needeth not to seek for help. 28 The fear of the Lord is like a paradise of blessing, and they have covered it above all glory.

Ver. 28.  It, or "him."  H.


--- The virtuous man is covered with glory.

29 My son, in thy lifetime be not indigent: for it is better to die than to want.

Ver. 29.  Indigent.  Gr. "live not by begging," being too lazy to work, or incurring this punishment for thy sins.  Lev. xxvi. 16.  Ps. cviii.  Deut. xv. 4.  Involuntary poverty is a most severe scourge.  C.


--- All are bound too labour for what is needful; (W.) some by prayer, others by trade, &c.  H.

30 The life of him that looketh toward another man's table is not to be counted a life: for he feedeth his soul with another man's meat.

Ver. 30.  Meat.  Such is the condition of the parasite, (C.) and of the beggar.  H.

31 But a man, well instructed and taught, will look to himself. 32 Begging will be sweet in the mouth of the unwise, but in his belly there shall burn a fire.

Ver. 32.  Unwise.  Some read, "impudent man," with the Gr.


--- Fire.  He shall feel the inconveniences of poverty; (H.) yet will not work, being lost to all shame.  C.


--- Plato (Leg. 11.) orders magistrates to "clear the country of such an animal," zwou, (H.) and the Lacedemonians suffered no beggars among them.

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