Ver. 1. Fat kine. He means the great ones that lived in plenty and wealth, (Ch.) and without restraint, (Is. xv. 5. Jer. xlvi. 20. C.) having no compassion for the poor. W.
--- The women who had too great an ascendency over their husbands, like Jezabel, may also be meant. Theod. Grot.
--- In many parts of the East the women affect being fat.
Ver. 2. Holiness. He has none but himself to swear by. Heb. vi. 13. His word is infallible; but he condescends to use an oath to make a deeper impression on man.
--- Pikes; spits, or large shields. Heb. also, "They will lead you away with hooks, (in the nose, Is. xxxvii. 29.) and your children with fish-hooks," or pots. You shall be treated like victims, being either roasted or boiled. No part shall be left.
Ver. 3. Breaches of the city. C.
--- Sept. "naked." Heb. "apart." H.
--- The victors shall divide you among them. C.
--- Armon, a foreign country; some understand it of Armenia, (Ch.) and this is the general opinion. M.
--- Sept. "on Mount Remmon." Theodot. "Mona." Israel was removed into Armenia, "the mountain of Menni." Jer. li. 27.
ArmonArmon, a foreign country; some understand it of Armenia, (Ch.) and this is the general opinion. M.
Ver. 4. Galgal. Thither the people went of their own accord, as to a place of devotion. Osee iv. 15. Amos ironically tells them to proceed, as Christ addressed the Jews. Mat. xxiii. 32. C.
--- After many admonitions have proved fruitless, God suffers infidels to act as they please. W.
--- This is the most dreadful of his judgments. H.
--- Morning, with haste.
--- Three days. This also may denote the false exactitude of the Israelites to perform what God did not require, while they neglected the most essential duties, like the Pharisees. It may also imply the giving tithes every third year, (Deut. xiv. 28.) or presenting themselves at the three great festivals. Ex. xxiii. 14. The schismatics observed parts of the law, and had a devotion of their own choice. C.
BethelBethel, 1 see s.v. — 2 (Josh 12:16; Simeon) another name for Bethul. --- Bethel, as it was called in the days of Moses, being the ancient Luza. C. --- Bethel signifies the house of God, being honoured with two altars. H.
Ver. 5. With. Heb. mechamets, (H.) also "without leaven." It was expressly forbidden, (Lev. ii. 11.) though not in the first fruits. Lev. xxiii. 17.
--- It, to beg that God would remember you. Num. x. 10. Hence the Pharisees did so when they gave alms, (Mat. vi. 2. C.) but out of ostentation. H.
--- Sept. "And they read the law of their own invention, (Theod.) or of God, out of the land, (which the Jews were not to do. S. Chrys. or. 3. c. Jud. Const. Apost. vi. 24.) and proclaimed praise or confession." H.
--- These interpreters read inaccurately, (C.) krau méuts thure, &c. yet S. Jerom explains their words of heretics reading the Scriptures out of the true Church, and misapplying them.
Ver. 6. Dulness, (stuporem) as when the teeth have bitten at a stone (H.) and are edged. Jer. xxxi. 29. Sept. "gnashing." Heb. "cleanness," through want of food. Eliseus foretold a famine under Achab. 4 K. viii. 1. That of Joel (i.) seems to have happened later than this. C.
--- God sent these afflictions for their amendment. W.
Ver. 7. Months. The latter rain falls in April. See Deut. xi. 14. C.
--- Harvest. Sept. have as usual, "vintage." But this is less accurate, as it never rains in the preceding summer months. S. Jer.
Ver. 9. Wind. Prot. "blasting." H.
--- "Pestilential air," (Sept. Sym. &c.) which destroys the corn (C.) and men. H.
Ver. 10. Egypt, as I published the Egyptians, (C.) or the Hebrews, when they came thence, and wished to return. Chal. S. Cyr.
--- Horses. I have deprived you of them, (H.) under Achab and Joachaz. 4 K. vi. and xiii.
--- Nostrils. Hazael slew many subjects of Jehu. 4 K. x. 32. C.
--- The stench of their carcasses and of the locusts caused death or the plague. H.
Ver. 11. Burning. This comparison shews the condition of Israel. Hardly any escaped. Zac. iii. 2. and 1 Cor. iii. 15. C.
Ver. 12. These. He mentions not what, to keep them in greater suspense and dread; (S. Jer.) or he will put in execution what he had threatened before. v. 2.
--- Meet. Sept. "beseech." Aq. "oppose," or to receive the Messias. S. Jer.
--- Prepare by repentance to find mercy. C.
--- After long captivity, Christ will save some. W.
Ver. 13. Wind. Sept. "the Spirit, and announcing to man his Christ," (H.) or Cyrus. Theod.
--- But this version has read improperly. C.
--- Some hence brought an argument against the divinity of the Holy Spirit. S. Jer.
--- Mist. Sept. "the morning and the cloud," spreading light or darkness over man.
--- Earth, on the wings of the wind. Ps. xvii. 11. C.