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PAUL and Timothy, the servants of Jesus Christ; to all the saints in Christ Jesus, who are at Philippi, with the bishops and deacons.

Ver. 1.  With the bishops and deacons.  By bishops many understand those who were only priests; for the name of priests, at that time, was common to those who were by their ordination priests or bishops, though the order as well as the functions were different.  S. Chrys. also takes notice, that the name of deacon then signified any minister of Christ.  S. Paul also might mean the bishops, or priests and deacons, not only of Philippi, but also of the adjacent places.  Wi.


[†]  V. 1.  Cum episcopis et diaconis, sun episkopoiV kai diakonoiV.  S. Jerom, S. Chrys. &c. take notice, that though the office of bishop and priest was different, yet both these different orders were sometimes expressed by the word bishop, episkopoV; sometimes by the word priest, presbuteroV.  S. Hier. tom. 4. in Titum. p. 413.  Quia eosdem episcopos illo tempore, quos et presbyteros appellabant, propterea indifferenter de episcopis quasi de presbyteris est locutus.  See again, tom. 4, part 2, Epist. ad Oceanum, p. 648. and Ep. ad Evangelium, p. 802.  S. Chrys. on this place: Tunc nomina erant communia; atque etiam ipse episcopus vocabatur diaconus.  tom. 4. log. a. p. 5. Ed. Savil.  TouV presbuterouV outwV ekal[].  Tote gar ekoinonoun toiV onomasi, kai diakonoV o episkopoV elegeto.






Philippi, a considerable city in Macedonia, so called from Philip, father of Alexander the Great.  S. Paul had preached there.  Acts xvi.  Those people had a great veneration for him, and supplied his wants when he was at Corinth, and again when he was a prisoner at Rome, sending to him by Epaphroditus, who is thought to have been the bishop of Philippi.  S. Paul sent this letter by him to the Philippians, (written during his imprisonment) from Rome; but whether during his first or second imprisonment, is uncertain.  Wi.


--- It is generally believed that S. Paul wrote it about the year 62, in his first confinement.  In it he testifies to the faithful his most tender gratitude and acknowledgement for the assistance they had sent him, and a zeal the most ardent for their salvation.  He felicitates them on their courage under sufferings for the cause of Jesus Christ, on their good works also, and forcibly excites them to confidence and joy.


--- The Philippians were the first among the Macedonians converted to the faith.  S. Paul, in this epistle, recommends charity, unity, and humility; and warns them against false teachers, whom he calls dogs, and enemies of the cross of Christ.  He also returns thanks for their benefactions.  It was written about twenty-nine years after our Lord's ascension.  Ch.

2 Grace be unto you, and peace from God our Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ. 3 I give thanks to my God in every remembrance of you, 4 Always in all my prayers making supplication for you all, with joy; 5 For your communication in the gospel of Christ from the first day until now.

Ver. 5.  For your fellowship.  This word is divers times used by S. Paul for a contribution of charitable alms, which it may also signify in this place; though others expound it of their being made partakers of the graces of Christ, by the gospel.  Wi.

6 Being confident of this very thing, that he, who hath begun a good work in you, will perfect it unto the day of Christ Jesus. 7 As it is meet for me to think this for you all, for that I have you in my heart; and that in my bands, and in the defence and confirmation of the gospel, you all are partakers of my joy.

Ver. 7.  In the defence, &c. being then a prisoner, waiting for his trial; and the defence he could make for himself, and the sentence of the judge.  Wi.

8 For God is my witness, how I long after you all in the bowels of Jesus Christ. 9 And this I pray, that your charity may more and more abound in knowledge, and in all understanding:

Ver. 9.  That your charity, &c.  It is worthy of remark, that S. Paul does not beg that the Philippians may enjoy temporal blessings, but that they may be rewarded with an increase of spiritual favours; (Cal.) and as he remarks in the succeeding verses, that they may be filled with the fruits of justice.

10 That you may approve the better things, that you may be sincere and without offence unto the day of Christ,


11 Filled with the fruit of justice, through Jesus Christ, unto the glory and praise of God. 12 Now, brethren, I desire you should know, that the things which have happened to me, have fallen out rather to the furtherance of the gospel:

Ver. 12.  Now I desire, &c.  From hence it appears, that what was intended as the greatest hindrance to the propagation of the Christian religion, eventually proved the most direct method of extending it.  S. Paul was not less zealous in prison, and in chains, than when he laboured under no obstacles to his designs: how much the reverse is the conduct of our late reformers!

13 So that my bands are made manifest in Christ, in all the court, and in all other places;

Ver. 13.  In all the court,† or in the whole palace of the emperor, and to all others, or in all other places at and near Rome.  Wi.


[†]  V. 13. In omni Prætorio, en olw tw praitwriw.


14 And many of the brethren in the Lord, growing confident by my bands, are much more bold to speak the word of God without fear.

Ver. 14.  And many of, &c. encouraged by the intrepidity and perseverance of the apostle.  Calmet.


--- Knowing that sufferings undergone for the cause of Jesus Christ were most honourable, and the portion truly enviable of all the saints, as by sufferings they were known to be his disciples, and by sufferings they were to purchase that eternal weight of glory prepared for all that suffer patiently and joyfully for God's sake.

15 Some indeed, even out of envy and contention; but some also for good will preach Christ.

Ver. 15.  Some . . . out of envy and contention publish and preach Christ, thinking perhaps that this would displease me, or exasperate my persecutors against me; but whatever their motive be, if they preach the true doctrine of Christ, I rejoice.  Wi.

16 Some out of charity, knowing that I am set for the defence of the gospel. 17 And some out of contention preach Christ not sincerely: supposing that they raise affliction to my bands. 18 But what then? So that by all means, whether by occasion, or by truth, Christ be preached: in this also I rejoice, yea, and will rejoice. 19 For I know that this shall fall out to me unto salvation, through your prayer, and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ,

Ver. 19.  I know that this shall turn to my salvation, &c.  It may either signify to his spiritual good and the salvation of his soul, or to his safety and deliverance out of prison: if this was his first imprisonment.  Wi.

20 According to my expectation and hope; that in nothing I shall be confounded, but with all confidence, as always, so now also shall Christ be magnified in my body, wither it be by life, or by death.

Ver. 20.  Whether it be by life, or by death.  To live longer, if God pleaseth, or to suffer death at this time, he shews himself resigned to either.  Wi.

21 For to me, to live is Christ; and to die is gain.

Ver. 21.  To live is Christ.  If it be his will that I live, my life shall be spent in his service.


--- To die, and suffer martyrdom, will be my gain, by coming to the enjoyment of Christ sooner.  Wi.

22 And if to live in the flesh, that is to me the fruit of labour, and what I shall choose I know not.

Ver. 22.  This is to me, &c.  His meaning is, that although his dying immediately for Christ, would be his gain, by putting him presently in possession of heaven; yet he is doubtful what he should choose, because by staying longer in the flesh, he should be more beneficial to the souls of his neighbours.  Ch.


--- What I shall choose I know not: though my earnest desire is to be dissolved from this mortal body, and to be with Christ, as my greater happiness, yet if it be the will of God that I labour longer, as necessary for your good, and that I again come to you, let God dispose of me according to his holy will.  Wi.

23 But I am straitened between two: having a desire to be dissolved and to be with Christ, a thing by far the better. 24 But to abide still in the flesh, is needful for you.
25 And having this confidence, I know that I shall abide, and continue with you all, for your furtherance and joy of faith:

Ver. 25-26.  And having this confidence.  In effect S. Paul escaped this first danger, for after having remained two years at Rome, he was taken from his confinement.  Calmet.


--- I know (or am persuaded, as in the Greek) that I shall remain . . . by my coming to you again.  This is one argument that this epistle was written during his first imprisonment at Rome: yet this is not agreed upon by the interpreters, and especially whether he ever returned again to Philippi.  Wi.

26 That your rejoicing may abound in Christ Jesus for me, by my coming to you again. 27 Only let your conversation be worthy of the gospel of Christ: that, whether I come and see you, or, being absent, may hear of you, that you stand fast in one spirit, with one mind labouring together for the faith of the gospel.

Ver. 27, &c.  Whether when I come, and see you, &c.  This implies a doubt of his seeing them again.  At least endeavour you to lead a life worthy of the gospel, according to the principles of your faith; and be not terrified by your adversaries and persecutors: God permits this for your salvation, though an occasion of perdition to your persecutors: you having the like to combat as you have seen in me, when whipped at Philippi.  See Acts xvi.  Wi.


28 And in nothing be ye terrified by the adversaries: which to them is a cause of perdition, but to you of salvation, and this from God:

Ver. 28.  The adversaries.  Either by the persecutions of the Jews and Gentiles, or by the doctrine of false brethren.

29 For unto you it is given for Christ, not only to believe in him, but also to suffer for him. 30 Having the same conflict as that which you have seen in me, and now have heard of me.
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Holy Spirit