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AND he said to his disciples: It is impossible that scandals should not come: but woe to him through whom they come.

Ver. 1.  The world being corrupted as it is, and the spread of evil so wide, it is impossible that scandals should not come.  V.

 

--- It is impossible, morally speaking, with regard to the malice of men.  Wi.



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2 It were better for him, that a millstone were hanged about his neck, and he cast into the sea, than that he should scandalize one of these little ones.

Ver. 2.  It were better.  Christ here speaks after the manner of the Jews, who were accustomed to inflict this punishment only on the greatest malefactors.  So that we must be ready to undergo the most excruciating torments, rather than cause any scandal to our neighbour; though we must here observe, that if our neighbour take scandal at our good works, we ought not on that account to desist from doing good, or desert the truth.  Ven. Bede.

 

--- S. Luke, in this chapter, inserts four instructions, which have no connection with each other, and which by the writers of evangelical harmony, are given in different places; as in Matt. xviii. after v. 14, &c.



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3 Take heed to yourselves. If thy brother sin against thee, reprove him: and if he do penance, forgive him.

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4 And if he sin against thee seven times in a day, and seven times in a day be converted unto thee, saying, I repent; forgive him.

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5 And the apostles said to the Lord: Increase our faith.

Ver. 5.  Increase our faith.  The disciples having heard our Saviour inculcating maxims hard to flesh and blood, such as avoiding scandal, and forgiving our enemies, humbly beg their faith may be increased, that they may be able to comply with these maxims; for they had heard Christ say, that every thing was possible to him that believed.  Theophy.

 

--- Christ compares faith to a grain of mustard seed; because, though the grain be small, it is nevertheless stronger than most herbs.  S. Chrysos.


6 And the Lord said: If you had faith like to a grain of mustard seed, you might say to this mulberry tree, Be thou rooted up, and be thou transplanted into the sea: and it would obey you.

Ver. 6.  To this mulberry-tree.  In S. Matthew, (xvii. 19.) we read, to this mountain.  Christ might say both at different times.  Wi.



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7 But which of you having a servant ploughing, or feeding cattle, will say to him, when he is come from the field: Immediately go, sit down to meat:

Ver. 7.  The design and end of this parable is to shew that, rigorously speaking, we are useless servants with regard to God.  This sovereign Master has a right to exact of us every kind of service, and to make us apply ourselves to any task he may think proper, without our having any reason to complain either of the difficulty, trouble, or length of our labours; we are entirely his, and he is master of our persons, time, and talents.  We hold of him whatever we possess, and wo to us if we abuse his trust, by applying our talents to any use contrary to his designs.  But though he be Lord and Master, he leaves our liberty entire.  If he produces in us holy desires, if he works in us meritorious actions, gives us virtuous inclinations and supernatural gifts, he sets to our account the good use we make of them; and in crowning our merits, he crowns his own gifts.  S. Aug. lib. ix. Confes. and Serm. 131.  Calmet.


8 And will not rather say to him: Make ready my supper, and gird thyself, and serve me, whilst I eat and drink, and afterwards thou shalt eat and drink? 9 Doth he thank that servant, for doing the things which he commanded him? 10 I think not. So you also, when you shall have done all these things that are commanded you, say: We are unprofitable servants; we have done that which we ought to do.

Ver. 10.  Unprofitable servants.  Because our service is of no profit to our Master; and he justly claims it as our bounden duty.  But though we are unprofitable to him, our serving him is not unprofitable to us; for he is pleased to give, by his grace, a value to our good works, which, in consequence of his promise, entitles them to an eternal reward.  Ch.

 

--- The word useless, when joined to servant, generally means a servant from whom his master does not derive the service he has a right to expect; as in S. Matt. xxv. 30.  Here the word is taken in a less odious sense.  It means a servant who does not testify sufficient zeal and ardour in his master's service, who is not very eager to please him.  With regard to God, we are always useless servants, because he wants not our services; and without his assistance, we can neither undertake nor finish any thing to please him.  Calmet.


11 And it came to pass, as he was going to Jerusalem, he passed through the midst of Samaria and Galilee.


12 And as he entered into a certain town, there met him ten men that were lepers, who stood afar off;
13 And lifted up their voice, saying: Jesus, master, have mercy on us. 14 Whom when he saw, he said: Go, shew yourselves to the priests. And it came to pass, as they went, they were made clean.

Ver. 14.  To the priests.  Jesus sends them to the priests, to convince the latter of the reality of the cures which he wrought, and oblige them by that to acknowledge him for their Messias; 2ndly, that the lepers might enjoy the fruit of their cure, by returning to the society of their fellow men, after they had been declared clean, and satisfied all the demands of the law; for there were may ceremonies previous to be gone through.  Calmet.

 

--- And lastly, to shew that in the new law, such as are defiled with the leprosy of sin, should apply to the priests.  Hence, says S. Austin, let no one despise God's ordinance, saying that it is sufficient to confess to God alone.  Lib. de visit. infirm.



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15 And one of them, when he saw that he was made clean, went back, with a loud voice glorifying God. 16 And he fell on his face before his feet, giving thanks: and this was a Samaritan. 17 And Jesus answering, said, Were not ten made clean? and where are the nine? 18 There is no one found to return and give glory to God, but this stranger. 19 And he said to him: Arise, go thy way; for thy faith hath made thee whole.

Ver. 19.  Thy faith hath made thee whole.  Were not the others also made whole?  They were cleansed indeed from their leprosy, but it no where appears that they were justified in their souls like this Samaritan, of whom it said, thy faith hath made thee whole; whereas it was said of the others, that they were made clean, viz. of their leprosy in their body, though not justified in their soul: this the Samaritan alone seems to have obtained.  Maldonatus.


20 And being asked by the Pharisees, when the kingdom of God should come? he answered them, and said: The kingdom of God cometh not with observation:

Ver. 20.  When the kingdom of God should come?  or when is it to come?  when will the Messias come?  The Pharisees might say this in a mocking and an insulting manner, to signify that he could not be their true Messias.

 

--- The kingdom of God cometh not with observation; that it, so as to be observed; not with great marks of temporal power, as you imagine.  Wi.

 

--- The Pharisees expected a Messias powerful according to this world, a conqueror, a monarch, a revenger of the injuries of Israel; one who would restore them to liberty, and bless them with temporal goods and prosperity.  In Jesus, they saw nothing, which corresponded to these magnificent hopes; and therefore asked him, by way of insult and reproach, when this kingdom of God would come, which he so often talked of and announced to his disciples.  He answers them, that the manifestation of the Messias, and the establishment of his kingdom, shall not be effected in a conspicuous, splendid manner.  It shall be brought about insensibly, and the accomplishment of the designs of the omnipotence of our Lord shall appear a casualty, and the effect of secondary causes.  You shall not see the Messias coming at the head of armies, to spread terror and desolation.  His arrival shall not be announced by ambassadors, &c. every thing in the establishment of my kingdom shall be the reverse of temporal power.  Calmet.


21 Neither shall they say: Behold here, or behold there. For lo, the kingdom of God is within you.

Ver. 21.  Is within you.  It is with you; your Messias is already come.

 

--- He standeth in the midst of you, as John the Baptist told you.  John i. 26.  Wi.


22 And he said to his disciples: The days will come, when you shall desire to see one day of the Son of man; and you shall not see it.

Ver. 22.  To see one day, &c.  Hereafter, when I shall be no longer visibly among you, you shall heartily wish for one day's conversation with me.  Wi.

 

--- This verse is addressed to the disciples.  He insinuates that he will take from them this corporeal presence, and they shall be exposed to persecution and affliction: then they shall wish to see one day of the Son of man, and shall not be able to obtain it.  They shall wish ardently to see him, to entertain themselves with him, and consult him, but shall not have that happiness.  This was meant to excite the disciples to profit more of his presence whilst they enjoyed it.  Calmet.


23 And they will say to you: See here, and see there. Go ye not after, nor follow them:

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24 For as the lightening that lighteneth from under heaven, shineth unto the parts that are under heaven, so shall the Son of man be in his day.

Ver. 24.  For as the lightning, &c.  See Matt. xxiv. 27.  Wi.

 

--- Christ here alludes to the glory with which he shall appear when he shall come to judge the world, surrounded by his angels, &c. when he will appear like lightning, that shall penetrate the inmost recesses of our souls, and shall suffer no crime, not even the slightest thought of our souls, to pass unnoticed.  This is the time when he will manifest his glory, and not on his entry into Jerusalem, as the disciples imagined: for he informs them, that he will then have to suffer a cruel death.  Ven. Bede.


25 But first he must suffer many things, and be rejected by this generation. 26 And as it came to pass in the days of Noe, so shall it be also in the days of the Son of man.

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27 They did eat and drink, they married wives, and were given in marriage, until the day that Noe entered into the ark: and the flood came and destroyed them all.

Ver. 27.  After having compared his second coming to lightning, in order to shew how sudden it will be, he next compares it to the days of Noe and Lot, to shew that it will come when men least expect it; when, entirely forgetting his coming, they are solely occupied in the affairs of this world, in buying and selling, &c.  He only mentions those faults which appear trivial, or rather none at all, (passing over the crimes of murder, theft, &c.) purposely to shew, that if God thus punishes merely the immoderate use of what is lawful, how will his vengeance fall upon what is in itself unlawful.  Ven. Bede.


28 Likewise as it came to pass, in the days of Lot: they did eat and drink, they bought and sold, they planted and built.

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29 And in the day that Lot went out of Sodom, it rained fire and brimstone from heaven, and destroyed them all.

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30 Even thus shall it be in the day when the Son of man shall be revealed. 31 In that hour, he that shall be on the housetop, and his goods in the house, let him not go down to take them away: and he that shall be in the field, in like manner, let him not return back.

Ver. 31.  When you see war lighted up in Judea, lose no time, but betake yourselves to flight for safety.  Indeed the Christians, forewarned by these predictions, and other prophecies of the apostles, according to Lactantius, (lib. iv. c. 21.) fled from the danger beyond the Jordan, into the states of Herod, to Pella and the neighbouring villages.  See Eusebius.  Eccles. Hist. lib. iii. c. 5.


32 Remember Lot's wife.

Ver. 32.  As Lot only escaped destruction by leaving all things, and flying immediately to the mountain, whereas his wife, by shewing an affection for the things she had left, and looking back, perished; so those who, in the time of tribulation, forgetting the reward that awaits them in heaven, look back to the pleasures of this world, which the wicked enjoy, are sure to perish.  S. Ambrose.

 

--- Ta opisw epilanqanesqai, toiV de emprosqen epekteinesqai.  Philip. iii. 13.



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33 Whosoever shall seek to save his life, shall lose it: and whosoever shall lose it, shall preserve it.

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34 I say to you: in that night there shall be two men in one bed; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left.

Ver. 34.  By these different examples, Christ wishes to insinuate that good and bad men will be found in every state of life.  By those in bed, are understood the rich, by those in the mill, are understood the poor; whilst those in the field designate the pastors of his flock, who are labouring in the vineyard of the Lord.  S. Cyril and S. Amb.



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35 Two women shall be grinding together: the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left: two men shall be in the field; the one shall be taken, and the other shall be left. 36 They answering, say to him: Where, Lord? 37 Who said to them: Wheresoever the body shall be, thither will the eagles also be gathered together.

Ver. 37.  To the question of his disciples in the preceding verse, our blessed Saviour only returns this enigmatical answer, which seems to mean, that where-ever there are guilty Jews, there shall their enemies pursue them and find them out, not only in Jerusalem, but in all the cities of Judea, Galilee, &c. every where the vengeance of the Lord shall follow them, and overtake them.  For the interpretation of other parts of this chapter, see S. Matt. c. xxiv.  Calmet.

 

--- If we observe some discrepancies between the precise words of our Lord, as given by S. Matt. and S. Luke, as in S. Matt. c. xxiv. v. 40, and in Luke xvii. 34, and alibi passim, we can reconcile those apparent variations, by supposing that our Lord, in the course of his conversation, made use of both expressions.  A.



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