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BE ye not many masters, my brethren, knowing that you receive the greater judgment.

Ver. 1.  But not many masters, teachers, and preachers.  An admonition to all those who are not called, or not qualified to undertake this high ministry, lest they incur a greater condemnation.  Wi.



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2 For in many things we all offend. If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man. He is able also with a bridle to lead about the whole body.

Ver. 2.  For in many things we all offend,† fall into many, at least failings.

 

--- If any man offend not in word, the same is a perfect man.  He that in all occurrences can govern his tongue, has attained to a great degree of perfection.

 

--- He is able also with a bridle to lead about the whole body.  He alludes to the comparison in the following verse; and the sense is, that when he has once perfectly subdued this unruly adversary, it may be presumed he can govern himself as to other passions, and the whole body of his actions.  Wi.

 

[†]  V. 2.  Offendimus, ptaiomen, we stumble, rather than fall.


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3 For if we put bits into the mouths of horses, that they may obey us, and we turn about their whole body.

Ver. 3.  If we put bits, &c.  By the help of a bridle, a skillful rider can turn and guide horses never so headstrong and unruly.  An experienced pilot sitting at the helm, steers the course of the vessel in a storm, turns and guides the ship what way he thinks most proper; so must a man learn, and use his utmost endeavours to bridle and govern his tongue.  Wi.


4 Behold also ships, whereas they are great, and are driven by strong winds, yet are they turned about with a small helm, whithersoever the force of the governor willeth. 5 Even so the tongue is indeed a little member, and boasteth great things. Behold how small a fire kindleth a great wood.

Ver. 5-6.  The tongue is indeed a little member, yet doth great things:† causeth great evils and mischiefs, when it is not carefully governed; as a little fire,†† it kindleth and consumeth a great wood.  It is a world of iniquity, the cause of infinite evils, dissensions, quarrels, seditions, wars, &c.  It defileth the whole body, even the body politic of kingdoms.  This fire, kindled by hell, sets all in a flame during the course of our lives, (lit. the wheel of our nativity) from our cradle to our grave.  Wi.

 

[†]  V. 5.  Et magna exaltat, megalaucei; which is not only magnificè loqui et gloriari, but also magna facere.

 

[††]  V. 5.  Quantus ignis, for quantulus by the Greek, oligon pur.

6 And the tongue is a fire, a world of iniquity. The tongue is placed among our members, which defileth the whole body, and inflameth the wheel of our nativity, being set on fire by hell. 7 For every nature of beasts, and of birds, and of serpents, and of the rest, is tamed, and hath been tamed, by the nature of man:

Ver. 7.  Is tamed, &c.  The wildest beasts may be tamed, lions and tigers, and the rest,† and so managed as to do no harm.  Wi.

 

[†]  V. 7.  Et cæterorum, by which the ancient interpreter had read twn allwn, though in the present Greek copies we read, kai enaliwn, et Marinorum.

8 But the tongue no man can tame, an unquiet evil, full of deadly poison.

Ver. 8.  But the tongue no man can tame, without the special assistance of God.  Wi.

 

--- Wherefore we are to understand, says S. Austin, that as no one is able of himself to govern his tongue, we must fly to the Lord for his assistance.  S. Aug. ser. 4. de verb.  Mat. vi.

 

--- It is an unquiet evil,† which cannot be stopt.  It is full of deadly poison, which brings oftentimes death both to men's bodies and souls.  Wi.

 

[†]  V. 8.  Inquietum malum; so in divers Greek MSS. akatastaton, though in others, akataceton, quod coerceri non potest.


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9 By it we bless God and the Father: and by it we curse men, who are made after the likeness of God.

Ver. 9-13.  By it we bless God, &c.  Such different effects from the same cause, as of blessing God, and cursing men, created to the likeness of God, seem contrary to the ordinary course of nature; for a fountain from the same source doth not send forth both sweet and bitter streams.

 

--- Who is a wise man, and endued with knowledge among you? &c.  This seems to be connected with the admonition given at the beginning of the chapter, be not many masters; let none pretend to this but who have wisdom and knowledge, which also may be known by their prudent and mild conversation.


10 Out of the same mouth proceedeth blessing and cursing. My brethren, these things ought not so to be. 11 Doth a fountain send forth, out of the same hole, sweet and bitter water? 12 Can the fig tree, my brethren, bear grapes; or the vine, figs? So neither can the salt water yield sweet.
13 Who is a wise man, and endued with knowledge among you? Let him shew, by a good conversation, his work in the meekness of wisdom. 14 But if you have bitter zeal, and there be contentions in your hearts; glory not, and be not liars against the truth.

Ver. 14-16.  But if you have bitter zeal.  He hints at that bitter, false zeal, which many teachers among the Jews, even after their conversion, were apt to retain against the converted Gentiles, pretending with lies, and against the truth of the Scriptures, that they are not to be made partakers of the blessings brought to all nations by the Messias.

 

--- Glory not, boast not in this pretended wisdom, which descendeth not from above, from God, but which is earthly, sensual, diabolical, from an evil spirit, which foments these jealousies and divisions; and where there are such emulations and divisions, there is nothing but inconstancy, and all kind of evils.  Wi.


15 For this is not wisdom, descending from above: but earthly, sensual, devilish. 16 For where envying and contention is, there is inconstancy, and every evil work. 17 But the wisdom, that is from above, first indeed is chaste, then peaceable, modest, easy to be persuaded, consenting to the good, full of mercy and good fruits, without judging, without dissimulation.

Ver. 17-18.  But the true wisdom, which is from above, . . . is chaste, and pure, peaceable, modest, free from such divisions, tractable, easy to be persuaded† of the truths foretold in the Scriptures, &c.  Now the fruit and effect of such justice, piety, and sanctity, is sown in peace, with peaceable dispositions, in those who with sincerity seek true peace, and who hereby shall gain the reward of an eternal peace and happiness.  Wi.

 

--- S. Paul gives a similar character of charity.  1 Cor. c. xiii. "Charity is patient, is kind, . . . is not ambitious, seeketh not her own, is not provoked to anger, thinketh no evil, . . . believeth all things, hopeth all things, endureth all things."

 

--- Easy to be persuaded.  A good lesson for those devotees, who are not few in number, who are so obstinate and so wedded to their own opinions and ways, as to be unwilling to be controlled, even by those whom God has placed over them, for the direction of their souls.  A.

 

--- Without judging.  That is, it does not condemn a neighbour upon light grounds, or think evil of him.  It puts the best construction upon every thing he says or does, and never intrudes itself into the concerns of others.  C.

 

--- "Judge not, and you shall not be judged," says the Saviour of our souls; "condemn not, and you shall not be condemned."  S. Luke, vi. 37.  "No," says the holy apostle, (1 Cor. iv. 5.) "judge not before the time until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the counsels of the heart."

 

[†]  V. 17.  Suadibilis, eupeiqhV; which may either signify easy to be persuaded or who can easily persuade.

18 And the fruit of justice is sown in peace, to them that make peace.
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