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FOR I would not have you ignorant, brethren, that our fathers were all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea.

Ver. 1-2.  Our Fathers, the Jews, were all under the cloud.  He means, when God conducted the camp of the Israelites, in the day-time by a cloud, and in the night by a pillar of fire.  Ex. xiii. 21.  Wi.


--- In Moses.  Under the conduct of Moses they received baptism in figure, by passing under the cloud and through the sea: and they partook of the body and blood of Christ in figure, by eating of the manna, (called here a spiritual food, because it was a figure of the true bread which comes down from heaven) and drinking the water miraculously brought out of the rock, called here a spiritual rock; because it was also a figure of Christ.  Ch.


--- Were baptized in the cloud, and in the sea, figuratively, these being figures of baptism in the new law.  As Moses, who delivered them from the slavery of Egypt, was figure of Christ, who came to deliver mankind from the slavery of sin.  Wi.


2 And all in Moses were baptized, in the cloud, and in the sea: 3 And did all eat the same spiritual food,

Ver. 3-4.  All eat the same spiritual food, to wit, the manna, which seemed to come from heaven, and was a figure of the eucharist, the spiritual food of our souls.


--- All drank the same spiritual drink, and . . . . rock that followed them, by which is understood the stream of water, that came miraculously out of the rock struck by Moses, and which is said to have followed them, because it ran plentifully through their camp.


--- And the rock was Christ, a figure of Christ; for all these things (v. 11.) happened to them in figure.  Wi.


4 And all drank the same spiritual drink; (and they drank of the spiritual rock that followed them, and the rock was Christ.)


5 But with most of them God was not well pleased: for they were overthrown in the desert.

Ver. 5.  God was not well pleased, &c.  Of 600,000, only Josue and Caleb entered the land of promise; the rest were destroyed, and perished in the wilderness.  Their punishment ought to be an admonition to all to avoid such sins of idolatry, fornication, murmuring, &c.


6 Now these things were done in a figure of us, that we should not covet evil things as they also coveted.

Ver. 6.  In a figure of us.  That is, this was done and written to teach us, what we may expect, if we imitate the murmurs, infidelities, ingratitude, and disobedience of the Hebrew people.  Unless we renounce our irregular desires, unless we mortify our passions, baptism and communion will prove our greater condemnation.  The greatest graces are but subjects of alarm, unless our life correspond with them.


7 Neither become ye idolaters, as some of them, as it is written: The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.


8 Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed fornication, and there fell in one day three and twenty thousand.


9 Neither let us tempt Christ: as some of them tempted, and perished by the serpents.

Ver. 9.  As some of them tempted Christ.  This cannot but be understood of Christ, as God.  Wi.


10 Neither do you murmur: as some of them murmured, and were destroyed by the destroyer.


11 Now all these things happened to them in figure: and they are written for our correction, upon whom the ends of the world are come.

Ver. 11.  Upon whom the ends of the world are come.  The last age of the world, which S. John calls the last hour.  Wi.

12 Wherefore he that thinketh himself to stand, let him take heed lest he fall.

Ver. 12.  Take heed lest he fall.  This regards the doctors and teachers in the new Church of Corinth; who, relying upon their own learning, did not think themselves weak, and presuming too much upon their own strength, exposed themselves to the danger of falling.  See S. Chrys. and S. Aug. de dono.  Persev.


--- Self-diffidence is the foundation of our strength.  We prevent many dangerous falls when we keep close to the earth by humility.

13 Let no temptation take hold on you, but such as is human. And God is faithful, who will not suffer you to be tempted above that which you are able: but will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it.

Ver. 13.  Let no temptationtake hold on you.  Or, no temptation hath taken hold of you, or come upon you as yet, but what is human, or incident to man.  Ch.


--- The sense of these words is obscure: we may expound them by way of prayer, let no temptation, but such as are of human frailty, and not hard to be overcome, happen to you.  See the Greek text.


--- Will make also with temptation issue, that you may be able to bear it.  The literal signification of the Latin, compared with the Greek is, that God will bring you off, and make you escape out of those dangers, when you are tempted.  Wi.


--- The most violent temptations are occasions of merit and triumph to such as are in the hands of God; whilst the lightest are snares and a deep abyss to such as are in their own hands.


[†]  V. 13.  Tentatio vos non apprehendat.  In almost all Greek copies, non apprehendit in præterito, ouk eilhfen.  Which reading is also in divers ancient Latin interpreters, as if he puts them in mind that hitherto they had not suffered any great temptations or persecutions.  Faciet cum tentatione proventum, is not the saem as progressum, or utilitatem, by the Greek, but that they should escape out of it.  sun tw peirasmw kai thn ekbasin.

14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, fly from the service of idols.

Ver. 14.  There are various kinds of idolatry.  It is the perfection of Angels never to err: it is a human imperfection to fall into error, but a diabolical crime, so to love our error, as to divide the Church by schism, or leave it by heresy: this love of self is the most dangerous idolatry.

15 I speak as to wise men: judge ye yourselves what I say. 16 The chalice of benediction, which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ? And the bread, which we break, is it not the partaking of the body of the Lord?

Ver. 16.  The chalice of benediction,† &c.  Which the priests bless or consecrate, is it not the communion of the blood of Christ?  And the bread which we break, (so called because of the outward appearance of bread) is it not the partaking or communion of the body of the Lord?  See S. Chrys. here, hom. xxiv. p. 396. and p. 400.  See also the Annotations, Matt. xxvi. 26.  Wi.


--- Here the apostle puts them in mind of the partaking of the body and blood of Christ in the sacred mysteries, and becoming thereby one mystical body with Christ.  From whence he infers, (v. 21.) that they who are made partakers with Christ, by the eucharistic sacrifice, and sacrament, must not be made partakers with devils, by eating of the meats sacrificed to them.  Ch.


[†]  V. 16.  Calix benedictionis cui, (or as it is in the Greek) quem benedicimus.  See S. Chrys. hom. xxiv.  No Catholic now-a-days can declare his faith of the real presence in clearer terms than S. Chrys. hath in this, and other places: oti touto en tw pothriw on, ekeino esti, to apo thV pleuraV reusan, &c.  He calls the eucharist, qusian, a sacrifice.

17 For we, being many, are one bread, one body, all that partake of one bread.

Ver. 17.  We being many, are one bread.  Or, as it may be rendered, agreeably both to the Latin and Greek, because the bread is one, all we, being many, are one body, who partake of that one bread.  For it is by our communicating with Christ and with one another, in this blessed Sacrament, that we are formed into one mystical body; and made, as it were, one bread, compounded of many grains of corn, closely united together.  Ch.


--- From the sacrament of the real body of Christ in the eucharist, he passeth to the effect of this sacrament, which is to unite all those who partake of it, as members of the same mystical body of Christ, which is his Church: and from hence he presently draws this consequence, that such as are members of that body, of which Christ is the head, cannot have any communication with idolaters, or with those that offer sacrifices to idols and devils.  Wi.

18 Behold Israel according to the flesh: are not they, that eat of the sacrifices, partakers of the altar?

Ver. 18.  Behold Israel, according to the flesh.  That is, the people that were the offspring of Israel or Jacob.  Are not these they who offered sacrifices to the true God, and eat of the sacrifices, which were offered on his altars, and by offering to him such sacrifices, acknowledged him to be their God, and the only true God: and so you, if you partake, and eat of the sacrifices of idolaters, and of what they tell you was offered to their idols, you seem at least, to join with them in acknowledging, and paying a reverence to their idols, which are devils: and you cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord, and of the table of devils.


--- Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? that is, how dare we provoke our Lord, who is a jealous God, and will admit of no rival, by partaking of sacrifices offered to false gods? how dare we thus contemn his power, as if we were stronger than he, or that he could not punish us?  Wi.

19 What then? Do I say, that what is offered in sacrifice to idols, is any thing? Or, that the idol is any thing?

Ver. 19.  What then? do I say, &c.  He puts this objection, as if it were contradictory to what he had taught before, (c. viii. v. 4.) that an idol is nothing, &c. but he answers this objection by saying that all things, that is, all meats are lawful in themselves, but not always expedient, nor edifying, when they give scandal to weak brethren, or when the infidels themselves think that such as eat things offered to idols, join with them in honouring their idols.  Wi.


--- The meaning of this passage is: whilst I advise you to abstain from eating of any thing consecrated to idols, I do not advise you as supposing that these offerings have any power in themselves to defile your souls, in the same manner as by eating of the body and blood of Christ we receive strength to overcome our spiritual enemies.  S. Paul here anticipates an objection that might be made by some to whom he was writing.  Est.

20 But the things which the heathens sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not to God. And I would not that you should be made partakers with devils. 21 You cannot drink the chalice of the Lord, and the chalice of devils: you cannot be partakers of the table of the Lord, and of the table of devils.

Ver. 21.  In all this discourse, a comparison is instituted between the Christian host and oblation, its effects, conditions and properties, with the altars, hosts, sacrifices and immolations of the Jews and Gentiles; which the apostle could not have done, had there not been a proper sacrifice in the Christian worship.  The holy Fathers teach the same with the ancient Councils.  Thus in the council of Nice: The lamb of God laid upon the altar.  Conc. Ephes.  The unbloody service of the sacrifice.  In S. Cyril Alex. in Conc. Ephes. Anath. 11.  The quickening holy sacrifice; the unbloody host and victim.  Tertul. de coron. milit.  The propitiatory sacrifice both for the living and the dead.  This Melchisedech did most singularly prefigure in his mystical oblation of bread and wine; this also according to the prophecy of Malachy, shall continue from the rising to the setting sun, a perpetual substitute for all the Jewish sacrifices; and this, in plain terms, is called the Mass, by S. Augustin, Serm. ccli. 91.  Conc. Cartha. ii. c. 3. 4. c. 84. Milevit. 12.  S. Leo, ep. 81. 88. c. 2.  S. Gregory, l. ii. ep. 9. 92. &c. &c.  See next chap. v. 24.

22 Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy? Are we stronger than he? All things are lawful for me, but all things are not expedient.


23 All things are lawful for me, but all things do not edify.

Ver. 23.  All things are lawful.  This is the same sentiment he has expressed in chap. vi. v. 12. and in chap. viii. v. 8. 9. wherein he teaches us, that on some occasions it is necessary to abstain even from things in themselves lawful, as in the case of meats consecrated to idols.  Calmet.


--- Two excellent rules that can serve as guides on these occasions, are the edification of the Church, and the spiritual good of our neighbour.  Without the aid of these guides, we go astray ourselves and decoy others, in doing what the letter of the law permits, but what the spirit of the law, charity, forbids.


24 Let no man seek his own, but that which is another's.
25 Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, eat; asking no question for conscience' sake. 26 The earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof.


27 If any of them that believe not, invite you, and you will be willing to go; eat of any thing that is set before you, asking no question for conscience' sake.

Ver. 27.  Eat of any thing, &c.  Here at length S. Paul prescribes them a rule by which they were to govern themselves, as to meats that they met with.  Buy and eat any thing sold in the market, or of any thing that you meet with at the table of infidels, when they invite you, for all are the Lord's creatures, and may be taken with thanksgiving, as we ought to take whatsoever we eat.


--- But if any man say, this hath been sacrificed to idols, do not eat of it for his sake, &c.  And why must they not then eat of it? because either he is an infidel that says it: and then by saying so, he may mean that they who eat it, ought to eat it in honour of their gods.  Or if a weak brother says so, he thereby signifies, that his conscience judges it not lawful to be eaten; so that in one case, you seem to consent that things are to be taken in honour of idols: in the other, you give offence to your weak brother: and I would have you to be without offence, both to Jews and Gentiles; and not to think it enough that you can eat such things with thanksgiving.  It may be asked here why the apostle should not absolutely forbid them ever to eat any thing offered to idols, as this seems a thing absolutely forbidden in the council of Jerusalem?  Acts xv. 23.  To this some answer, that the apostle here expounds the true sense of that decree, which was only to be understood, when eating such meats gave scandal.  Others say, the prohibition was only for a short time, and now was out of date.  Others take notice, that the prohibition was not general, nor for all places, but only for the new converted Gentiles that were at Antioch, or in Syria and Cilicia, as specified in the decree.  Wi.

28 But if any man say: This has been sacrificed to idols, do not eat of it for his sake that told it, and for conscience' sake. 29 Conscience, I say, not thy own, but the other's. For why is my liberty judged by another man's conscience?

Ver. 29.  For why is my liberty?  The meaning of this passage is, that though we ought, on some occasions, to abstain from things in themselves lawful, yet, that on other occasions we are by no means obliged to it, particularly when our brother is not thoroughly instructed on that head.  Theo.

30 If I partake with thanksgiving, why am I evil spoken of, for that for which I give thanks? 31 Therefore, whether you eat or drink, or whatsoever else you do, do all to the glory of God.


32 Be without offence to the Jews, and to the Gentiles, and to the church of God:


33 As I also in all things please all men, not seeking that which is profitable to myself, but to many, that may be saved.
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Holy Spirit