Ver. 2. With a promise. This commandment being delivered with a special promise of a long life, which promise is to be understood conditionally, especially in regard to Christians, i.e. unless it be a greater favour to be taken out of the world young. Wi.
Ver. 5. Your carnal; temporal masters, whether Christians or heathens. Wi.
Ver. 6. Not serving to the eye; to please men only, but to do the will of God. Wi.
Ver. 9. Forbearing threatenings; forbearing, and remitting the punishments which you might perhaps threaten them with, and they deserve. Wi.
Ver. 12. Flesh and blood, which may either signify temptations of the flesh, or raised by mortal men.
--- Principalities and powers; i.e. devils, or apostate angels, who before their fall were in such ranks of spirits, and who are permitted to rule over the wicked in this world of darkness. Wi.
--- By which we are to understand the fallen angels. For as by nature, and from their creation, they were the governors of this corporeal world, and were deprived of this their power on account of their pride, they received it (though limited by certain restrictions) in order to tempt man. Estius.
--- Rulers of the world of this darkness. By these are meant the devils who exercise their power and authority in our inferior and dark atmosphere, by raising winds, storms, tempests, &c. By darkness may be understood the wicked, in whom Satan reigns as in a citadel. Menochius.
--- Our inferior world is called dark and misty in comparison of the world above, which is always bright, serene, and clear. Our atmosphere is called the cloudy and dark heavenly. Cicero, in his Tuscul Quæst. Prudentius likewise, in Hamartigenia, writes thus:
Non mentem sua membra premunt, nec terrea virtus
Oppugnat sensus liquidos, bellove lacessit;
Sed cum spiritibus tenebrosis nocte dieque
Congredimur quorum dominatibus humidus iste
Et pigris densus nebulis obtemperat aer.
Scilicet hoc medium cœlum inter et infima terræ
Quod patet ac vacuo nubes suspendit hiatu,
Frena potestatum variarum sustinet, ac suo
Principe Belial rectoribus horret iniquis.
His colluctamur prædoribus, at sacra nobis
Oris Apostoli testis sententia prodit. Estius.
--- Against the spirits of wickedness: or wicked spirits in the air, says S. Jerom. Lit. in celestials. Wi.
--- High places. That is to say, in the air, the lowest of the celestial regions in which God permits these wicked spirits or fallen angels to wander. Ch.
Ver. 14. Your loins . . . with truth, both as to doctrine and a good life, keeping your baptismal promises.
--- Having on the breastplate of justice, not only of the particular virtue of justice, but of all virtues in general. Wi.
Ver. 15. Your feet shod with the preparation of the gospel; i.e. prepared to walk in the ways of the gospel, as a soldier must be prepared and in readiness to march or fight. Wi.
Ver. 16. The shield of faith. A lively faith working by charity, which will enable you to conquer your greatest enemies, and to escape their fiery darts, their greatest temptations, and attacks. Wi.
Ver. 24. Who love our Lord Jesus Christ. Lit, "in incorruption;" with purity of heart and mind. Wi.