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AND at that time there was raised a great persecution against the church which was at Jerusalem; and they were all dispersed through the countries of Judea, and Samaria, except the apostles.

Ver. 1.  Were dispersed.  During this great persecution of the Church, those who could not conceal themselves, were dispersed into different countries.  Thus did the Almighty make use of the malice of his enemies, to the greater exaltation and glory of his own name.  For those who fled, carried with them the light of the gospel, wherever they went.  Tirinus.

 

--- They were burning torches, which communicated of their holy fire to every place, in which they were scattered.  S. Aug. Serm. cxvi.

 

--- Thus was the gospel disseminated from Jerusalem into all Judea and Samaria.

 

--- And Samaria.  Though our Saviour in his life time had forbid them to preach to the Samaritans, (Matt. x. 5.) they now knew that the time of that precept was past.  Wi.




2 And devout men took order for Stephen's funeral, and made great mourning over him.

Ver. 2.  Took care.  In an ancient work, which gives the history of the finding of S. Stephen's body, generally considered authentic, and printed at the end of the 7th vol. of S. Augustin's works, we find the following account.  "Stephen having been stoned without the northern gate, lay there without burial one day and a night, according to the order of the Jewish rulers, that his body might become a prey to birds and beasts, but God did not suffer either to touch it." — "Then I, Gamaliel, compassionating these servants of Jesus Christ, and desiring to have some share in the faith and religion of this holy man, sent among the Jews some Christians who feared God, dwelling at Jerusalem, to take away privately the body, and bring it in my chariot to my country house, where it was deposited in my tomb towards the east, and we mourned over it for forty days," &c.  It is an injury to pray for a martyr, who ought to assist us by his prayers.  S. Aug. Serm. xvii.

 

--- We see great devotion used in burying his body, and four centuries afterwards, at the finding and translating thereof.  Very many miracles were performed on that occasion, as S. Augustin witnesses in his work de Civitate Dei. l. xxii. c. 8. and Serm. de S. Steph. T. viii.


3 But Saul made havock of the church, entering in from house to house, and dragging away men and women, committed them to prison.

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4 They therefore that were dispersed, went about preaching the word of God. 5 And Philip going down to the city of Samaria, preached Christ unto them.

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6 And the people with one accord were attentive to those things which were said by Philip, hearing, and seeing the miracles which he did. 7 For many of them who had unclean spirits, crying with a loud voice, went out. 8 And many, taken with the palsy, and that were lame, were healed. 9 There was therefore great joy in that city. Now there was a certain man named Simon, who before had been a magician in that city, seducing the people of Samaria, giving out that he was some great one:


10 To whom they all gave ear, from the least to the greatest, saying: This man is the power of God, which is called great.

Ver. 10.  This man is the power of God, which is called (that is, which is truly) great.  Simon pretended to be God, and the great God.  See S. Iræn. l. i. c. 20.


11 And they were attentive to him, because, for a long time, he had bewitched them with his magical practices.

Ver. 11.  He had bewitched them with his sorceries,† or magic: he had put them out of their wits, turned their heads, charmed them, stupefied them.  Wi.

 

[†]  V. 11.  Dementasset, exestakenai autouV.  So v. 15. Stupens admirabatur, the same word, existato.

12 But when they had believed Philip preaching of the kingdom of God, in the name of Jesus Christ, they were baptized, both men and women.
13 Then Simon himself believed also; and being baptized, he adhered to Philip. And being astonished, wondered to see the signs and exceeding great miracles which were done.

Ver. 13.  Simon himself believed.  That is, pretended to believe, that he might obtain the power of speaking tongues, and working miracles, which was frequently imparted to the faithful at baptism.  Menochius.

 

--- He was filled with pride and presumption, says S. Aug.  He wished to imitate the prodigies of the apostles, but loved not their justice, nor the truth they preached.  He entered into the Church, and desired baptism, not to obtain the grace of justification, but to have an occasion of extolling himself.  He wished to walk in wonders above himself.  In Psalm cxxx.


14 Now when the apostles, who were in Jerusalem, had heard that Samaria had received the word of God, they sent unto them Peter and John.


15 Who, when they were come, prayed for them, that they might receive the Holy Ghost.

Ver. 15.  The Holy Ghost, which the apostles came to give the Samaritan Neophytes, was not the spirit of grace, of justice, and of sanctity, for that they had received at baptism; but the spirit of strength, to confess with confidence and freedom the name of Jesus, and the supernatural and miraculous graces, usually at that time granted to the faithful, by the imposition of hands.  Philip did not administer the sacrament, because he could not; he was not a bishop.  Hence now in the Church, we see only the chief pastors do it, præcipuos et non alios videmus hoc facere.  See S. Chrysost. hom. xviii. in Acta.

 

--- There is no mention here, it is true, of unction, but the most venerable antiquity clearly specifies it.  S. Cyprian, in the third age, says: "it is moreover necessary, that he who has been baptized, should be anointed, that having received the chrism, that is, the unction, he may be the anointed of God."  Ep. lxx.

 

--- In the next age, S. Pacianus writes: "Do you say that this (the power of remitting sins) was granted only to the apostles?  Then I say, that they alone could baptize, and give the Holy Spirit, for to them alone was the command of doing it given.  If, therefore, the right of conferring baptism, and of anointing, descended to their successors, to them also has come the power of binding and loosing."  Ep. i. ad Sym. Bibl. Max. T. iv. p. 307.


16 For he was not as yet come upon any of them; but they were only baptized in the name of the Lord Jesus. 17 Then they laid their hands upon them, and they received the Holy Ghost.

Ver. 17.  They received the Holy Ghost.  Not but that they had received the grace of the Holy Ghost at their baptism; but not that plentitude of grace, and those gifts, which they received from bishops in the sacrament of confirmation.  This sacrament, as S. Chrys. observes,† S. Philip, the deacon, had not power to give.  Wi.

 

[†]  V. 17.  S. Chrys. hom. xviii. oude gar eicen exousian.

18 And when Simon saw, that by the imposition of the hands of the apostles, the Holy Ghost was given, he offered them money,

Ver. 18.  Simon . . . offered them money.  From hence it is called the sin of simony, to but, sell, or give money for benefices, and spiritual things.  It was vanity that made Simon desire this power.  Wi.

 

--- Hence to give or receive money in exchange, or as a price for any spiritual good whatever, is justly esteemed sinful.  It is called simony, from the name of the person, who was first engaged in this sin.  A.

 

--- Simon acts the part of a tempter to the apostles, and wishes to draw them into prevarication, by offering money for what was above all price, and of what they were not the proprietors, but the dispensers.  S. Clement. Rom.


19 Saying: Give me also this power, that on whomsoever I shall lay my hands, he may receive the Holy Ghost. But Peter said to him: 20 Keep thy money to thyself, to perish with thee, because thou hast thought that the gift of God may be purchased with money.

Ver. 20.  May thy money perish with thee; or go with thee to perdition.  This was a prophecy, says S. Chrys. of S. Peter who saw him incorrigible, and that he would not repent.  Wi.


21 Thou hast no part nor lot in this matter. For thy heart is not right in the sight of God.

Ver. 21.  Nor lot in this matter.  Lit. in this saying.  Wi.


22 Do penance therefore for this thy wickedness; and pray to God, that perhaps this thought of thy heart may be forgiven thee.

Ver. 22.  That perhaps this thought of thy heart may be forgiven thee.  The word perhaps, as the interpreters commonly observe on this and other places, many times does not imply any doubt or uncertainty.  There could be no doubt, says S. Chrys. only as to his repenting: if he repented, it is certain he would find remission of his sins.  Wi.

 

--- S. Augustin (ep. cviii.) understands the text, metanohson apo, &c. of penance done for heinous offences in the primitive Church, and teaches us to translate it thus, as it is in the Vulg. both here and 2 Cor. xii. 21.  Apoc. ix. 21. and adds, that very good men do daily penance for venial sins, by fasting, prayer, and alms.


23 For I see thou art in the gall of bitterness, and in the bonds of iniquity.

Ver. 23.  In the gall of bitterness.  In the bitter gall of hypocrisy, in the bonds, fetters, and chains of sin and iniquity.  Wi.


24 Then Simon answering, said: Pray you for me to the Lord, that none of these things which you have spoken may come upon me.

Ver. 24.  Pray . . . for me.  Instead of following the advice of S. Peter, he begs them to pray, not that God would touch his heart, and give him repentance; but that the evils might not fall upon him.  In this he is a true model of false penitents, who hate not the sin, but fear the punishment, which is the consequence of it.  He afterwards left the East, and went to Rome, under the reign of Claudius.  SS. Justin, Irenæus, and others say, the senate adored him as a divinity.  Having undertaken to fly in the air, in the presence of the emperor and senate, when he had raised himself to a certain height, he was brought down by the prayers of SS. Peter and Paul, and died a few days after, of the wounds he received by the fall.  Calmet.

 

--- See also Euseb. Theod. S. Aug. &c.


25 And they indeed having testified and preached the word of the Lord, returned to Jerusalem, and preached the gospel to many countries of the Samaritans.


26 Now an angel of the Lord spoke to Philip, saying: Arise, go towards the south, to the way that goeth down from Jerusalem into Gaza: this is desert.

Ver. 26.  This is desert.  In construction, whether we regard the Latin or Greek, to be desert, may either agree to the way leading to Gaza, or the city itself, which formerly had been almost destroyed.  Wi.

 

--- To the site of old Gaza, which was then a desert; above which was built the new Gaza, nearer the sea.  V.

 

--- Beza frequently makes very free with S. Luke, and in his annotations, an. 1556, says the text is wrong; it cannot be so.




27 And rising up, he went. And behold a man of Ethiopia, an eunuch, of great authority under Candace the queen of the Ethiopians, who had charge over all her treasures, had come to Jerusalem to adore.

Ver. 27.  An eunuch.  It is likely a proselyte converted to the Jewish religion.  He shews his zeal and devotion, says S. Chrys. not only by coming to Jerusalem, but by reading the prophets in his chariot.  Wi.




28 And he was returning, sitting in this chariot, and reading Isaias the prophet. 29 And the Spirit said to Philip: Go near, and join thyself to this chariot. 30 And Philip running thither, heard him reading the prophet Isaias. And he said: Thinkest thou that thou understandest what thou readest? 31 Who said: And how can I, unless some man shew me? And he desired Philip that he would come up and sit with him.

Ver. 31.  How can I, unless some one shew me,† or be a guide to me, as in the Greek.  Let every one, and especially the unlearned, take good notice of these words, not to wrest the Scriptures to his own perdition.  To follow his own private judgment, or his private spirit, is to make choice of a blind and incompetent guide, as to the sense of the Scriptures, and the mysteries of faith.  See the preface to the gospel of S. John.  Wi.

 

--- It appears this eunuch was not one of those, who are now so commonly seen, who think the Scripture is every where plain, and the sense open to every body.  Such would do much better to acknowledge, that they stand in need of a guide.  Grotius, hic.

 

--- S. Jerom, in his letter to Paulinus, printed at the head of the Latin Bibles, shews the necessity of an interpreter.  The apostles themselves could not understand the Scriptures till Christ gave them the knowledge; tunc aperuit illis sensum ut intelligerent scripturas.  Lu. xxiv. 45.

 

[†]  V. 31.  Et quomodo possum, nisi aliquis ostenderit mihi?  ean mh tiV odhghsh me.

32 And the place of the scripture which he was reading was this: He was led as a sheep to the slaughter; and like a lamb without voice before his shearer, so openeth he not his mouth.

Ver. 32-33.  As a sheep, or a lamb, &c.  The eunuch, by divine Providence, was now reading the 53d chap. of Isaias, which is of Christ, and his sufferings.

 

--- In humility his judgment was taken away.  The sense seems to be, that Christ having humbled himself, so as to undergo an unjust judgment, or condemnation to die on the cross, hath been again raised from the dead, and delivered from that judgment by his glorious resurrection, and ascension.  Wi.



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33 In humility his judgment was taken away. His generation who shall declare, for his life shall be taken from the earth? 34 And the eunuch answering Philip, said: I beseech thee, of whom doth the prophet speak this? of himself, or of some other man? 35 Then Philip, opening his mouth, and beginning at this scripture, preached unto him Jesus.

Philip And The Ethiopian

Philip And The Ethiopian

Then Philip, opening his mouth, and beginning at this scripture, preached unto him Jesus.

36 And as they went on their way, they came to a certain water; and the eunuch said: See, here is water: what doth hinder me from being baptized?

Ver. 36.  Here is water.  This shews, that baptism is to be given with water.  Wi.


37 And Philip said: If thou believest with all thy heart, thou mayest. And he answering, said: I believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God.

Ver. 37.  If thou believest, &c.  The Scripture many times mentions one disposition, when others no less necessary are supposed, as here a sorrow for sins, a firm hope, love of God, &c.  Wi.

 

--- Faith is thus seen to be a necessary predisposition in the adult, for the reception of baptism.  They must answer for themselves; but infants are baptized in the faith of the Church.  Their sponsors, who receive them from the font, answer for them.  D. Diony. Carthus.

 

--- And as the defilement was not personal, but that of others, so are they purified by the faith of others.


38 And he commanded the chariot to stand still; and they went down into the water, both Philip and the eunuch: and he baptized him.

Ver. 38.  We are not to suppose that in the administration of the sacraments in the primitive Church, nothing more was done than what we read, totidem litteris, in the Scripture.  S. Augustin answers this, when he says: "insomuch that he saith, Philip baptized him, he would have it understood, that all things were done, which though in the Scripture, for brevity sake, they are not mentioned, yet by order of tradition we know were to be done."


39 And when they were come up out of the water, the Spirit of the Lord took away Philip; and the eunuch saw him no more. And he went on his way rejoicing. 40 But Philip was found in Azotus; and passing through, he preached the gospel to all the cities, till he came to Caesarea.

Caesarea

In the Scripture, when Antioch and Cæsarea are simply mentioned, Antioch, in Syria, and Cæsarea, in Palestine, are uniformly designated.

Azotus

Azotus, or as the Heb. writes, Asdod, on the Mediterranean, was noted for the temple of Dagon, (1 K. v. 1,) which Jonathas destroyed. Joseph. xxii. 8. C.

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